Six reasons why
you'll enjoy living
Couples enjoy year-round golf at Bloomington, just three miles south of St. George, Utah.
1. Perfect, year-round climate:
Golf, all winter if you like. The cham-
pionship course is open every day
of the year. And you'll enjoy the soft
evening breeze as it flows from
surrounding mountains to keep you
cool and comfortable in summer.
2. Good, Wholesome Atmosphere:
The highest ideals and standards in
community living are maintained at
Bloomington along with a warm
neighborly spirit. You'll also enjoy
having the St. George Temple and Dixie
College so close to your front door.
3. Planned Community Living:
Terracor's planning division, Environ-
mental Design Group, worked carefully
to protect and enhance the natural
beauty of the rich, green Bloomington
valley. All homesites are located near
popular recreation facilities and
underground utilities preserve the
4. Unlimited Recreation:
Golf, swim, play tennis or ride horses. Hunt,
fish, or ski. You will enjoy organized camping
trips, trail rides, guided tours to nearby
National Parks, National Monuments and
historic sites. Or how about barbecue cook-
outs, golf lessons or swimming parties . . .
you name it! There's no end to the year-
round recreational facilities right at your
fingertips in Bloomington.
5. Close to friends and family . . .
. . . but not too close:
Los Angeles — 405 miles; Las Vegas — 126 miles;
Salt Lake City — 313 miles. It's easy to visit
these areas when you like, but they're also
far enough away that you can enjoy some
peaceful solitude if you desire it.
6. Uncongested . . . room to roam:
Bloomington provides a refreshing escape
from today's crowded living conditions. The
atmosphere is clean, quiet, and invigorating.
You'll enjoy the elbow room and you'll
P.O. Box 190 / St. George, Utah
□ Please send me complete infor-
mation about Bloomington.
□ Have a salesman call to explain
Bloomington in detail.
KIRTLAND TEMPLE :;
Hc*u~« ^f the V-A." . Joseph Smith,; Jr. called
thr, bc'M.nq m ,..Hs ' - -> player
March 27 f J838.' The c •r>. - „*,e weath r —
-'- ~d s'~ .-tar" ~ * as a men*. -1
to Sm;t*i " * > -- w*io sacrificed, their
worldly goods- to build of local ■■. materials
this impre vc Gothic: Revival and ^.Classic
style temple : :
: THE ARCHITECTS SOCIETY QT OHW
AND : :
■ : " THE 6HIO HiSTORiSAi SOCIETY: '„.■.._
ssse ' 3-43
On the Cover
Six miles south from the shore of Lake
Erie and 25 miles northeast of modern-
day Cleveland, Ohio, nestled in the
Chagrin River Valley, is the charming
and picturesque village of Kirtland.
Little-known to the average Cleveland
suburbanite, Kirtland is a great mile-
stone in Latter-day Saint history. There
for roughly six years, 1831-1837, the
Prophet of God, Joseph Smith, Jr., was
headquartered with the restored church.
The Prophet was directed to the
community by revelation. Thus, it is
fitting that 35 revelations in our pres-
ent-day Doctrine and Covenants were
given to him while he resided at or
near Kirtland, Ohio. In one of those
revelations, the Lord indicated that he
had given Kirtland to- the Saints as a
"stronghold ... for the space of five
.years." (D&C 64:21.) While in this
"stronghold," the Saints were directed
to build a temple to the Lord: ". . . And
the size thereof shall be fifty and five
feet in width, and let it be sixty-five feet
in length." (D&C 95:15-16.)
After three years of labor, the tem-
ple was dedicated Sunday, March 27,
1836. On that day, angels were seen;
they mingled their voices with the con-
gregation; and numerous Saints were
blessed with an outpouring of the Spirit,
some to prophesy, some to speak in
tongues, some to see visions. (See
Documentary History of the Church,
Vol. 2, pages 427-428.) About a week
later, the resurrected Jesus Christ vis-
ited the temple to instruct the Prophet
and Oliver Cowdery. Then three Old
Testament prophets came and gave in-
struction — Moses, Elias, and Elijah.
Little wonder, then, that the "House
of the Lord" was the gathering place for
the Saints — for worship, instruction,
and the joyful communion of fellow
Our cover illustration was painted by
Douglas Johnson, a director in the
Brigham Young University Motion Pic-
ture Department. For related article,
see page 4, "Kirtland Revisited."
Voice of the Church
Volume 73, Number 10
2 Editor's Page: Use the Programs of the Church, President Joseph Field
4 Kirtland Revisited, Dr. G. Dale Weight and Dr. Earl M. Mortensen
9 Ancient Landings in America, John Lear
12 Renewed Latter-day Saint Interest in the Phoenicians, Dr. Ross T.
16 The Instructor — A Voice of Truth for 105 Years, Dr. Lorin F. Wheel-
22 The Primary Children's Hospital — Takes a Big Step Forward, Berneli
29 Person to Person Rehabilitation, Allen R. Howell
75 Church Magazines Conversion Rules
78 About Values and Facts, Dr. Lael J. Woodbury
82 The Trustworthiness of Young Joseph Smith, Dr. Richard Lloyd Ander-
The LDS Scene
Teaching: The Problem of Evil, Dr. William E. Berrett
The Church Moves On
Research & Review, The Qualities Students Want in a Teacher (or
Parent), Albert L. Payne
Today's Family: Have a Family "Read-In," Mary Ellen MacArthur
Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Discusses How the
Church Helps Youth Meet the Problems of Today, Bishop John H.
Buffs and Rebuffs
These Times: The Soviet-West German Treaty, Dr. G. Homer Durham
End of an Era
30, 32, 35, 39
The Spoken Word, Richard L Evans
Era OT \buth Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors
LDSSA Conference, David Bly
Laurelife Is ... , Sue Gardiner
New Youth Magazine
What Is the Church Saying to You? Elaine Cannon
What Do You Read? Nancy Twitty
Fiction and Poetry
And Then We Grow, Ken ley Reese
Joseph Fielding Smith, Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green, Managing Editor; Jay M. Todd, Assistant Managing Editor; Eleanor
Knowles, Copy Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Manuscript Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; G. Homer Durham, Hugh
Nibley, Albert L. Payne. Truman G. Madsen. Elliott Landau, Leonard Arrington, Contributing Editors; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth
Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor: Ralph Reynolds. Art Director; Norman Price, Staff Artist.
W. Jay Elaredge, General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott. Business Manager; A. Glen
Snarr, Circulation Manager; S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representative.
©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970;
published by the Mutual Improvement Associations. All rights reserved.
Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided
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Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, Music
Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
Era, October 1970 1
Use the Programs of the Church
By President Joseph Fielding Smith
• The Lord has given us a perfect church organiza-
tion. We have everything we need to keep us in
paths of truth and righteousness. If we walk in the
course charted for us, we shall live happy and upright
lives here in this world, and then be inheritors in the
world to come of that fullness of reward found only
in the celestial kingdom.
Paul said of the organization of the Church: ". . .
God hath set some in the church, first apostles, sec-
ondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles,
then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities
of tongues." (1 Cor. 12:28.)
In other words, the Lord has set up in his church
a priesthood organization headed by apostles and
prophets. And he has also given other organizations,
called "helps" and "governments" to aid and assist
in the priesthood.
In every gospel dispensation there are special
needs to be met, problems to be solved, and help that
must be given to assist and aid the members of the
Church in working out their salvation "with fear and
trembling" before the Lord. (See Phil. 2:12.) Hence
we have auxiliary organizations to aid and assist the
priesthood. They are so organized as to meet the
needs of the people in whatever social conditions may
exist. They are part of the government of God and
are set up to help members of the Church perfect
their lives and do those things which assure them of
joy and happiness in this life and eternal life in the
life to come.
For example, acting under the inspiration of heaven,
President Brigham Young laid the foundation of the
Mutual Improvement Associations. He called upon
the youth of the Church to retrench, to turn to basic
principles, to overcome the world, and to keep the
commandments of God. To the leaders called to work
with the young people he said: "Let the keynote
of your work be the establishment in the youth of an
individual testimony of the truth and magnitude of the
great Latter-day work, and the development of
the gifts within them."
The great spiritual blessings of the gospel are ad-
ministered through the priesthood organizations. The
crowning blessing of life is to receive the fullness of
the priesthood in the house of the Lord.
But many helps and much encouragement are
needed along the way. There are many refining in-
fluences, numerous things that increase faith and
multiply testimony, many things that instill desires for
righteousness in our hearts— all of which aid us in
perfecting our God-given talents.
The chief responsibility to do these things which
lead to salvation rests with each individual. All of us
have been placed on earth to undergo the testing
experiences of mortality. We are here to see if we
will keep the commandments and overcome the world,
and we must do all that we can for ourselves.
The next responsibility for our salvation rests with
our families. Parents are set to be lights and guides
to their children and are commanded to bring them
up in light and truth, teaching them the gospel and
setting proper examples. Children are expected to
obey their parents, and to honor and respect them.
The Church and its agencies constitute in effect a
service organization to help the family and the indi-
vidual. Home teachers, priesthood leaders, and bishops
are appointed to lead those with whom they labor
to eternal life in our Father's kingdom, and the aux-
iliary organizations are appointed to aid and assist in
this great work of salvation.
We cannot stress too strongly the great need to
utilize all of these programs for the benefit and
blessing of all our Father's children.
I plead with the young and rising generation to
accept counsel and direction from their leaders and
to seek righteousness with all their hearts.
If all of us do all of the things we should in carry-
ing forward the programs' of the Church, the Lord
will bless and prosper us so fully that success shall
attend our labors, and out of it all peace and joy will
be our lot here and eternal glory hereafter.
To the young people of Zion everywhere, and to
the whole world, I bear testimony of the truth and
divinity of this great latter-day work.
Let all men know assuredly that we have the truth,
and that the Lord has revealed in these last days—
primarily through the instrumentality of the Prophet
Joseph Smith— the fullness of the everlasting gospel.
This testimony comes by the promptings of the
Holy Spirit, by the whisperings of the still small voice
to our souls.
I know, by the power of the Holy Ghost, that Jesus
Christ is the Son of God and the Savior of the world;
that Joseph Smith is a prophet of God who was called
by the Almighty to restore for the last time on earth
the saving truths of his gospel; and that The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is in literal reality
the kingdom of God on earth, the one place where the
truths of salvation are found, the one place where
men may come to the Lord's holy priesthood and be
sealed up into eternal life.
I pray that the spirit of testimony may abound in
the hearts of the Latter-day Saints; that all of us may
be valiant in testimony; and that together we may sit
down in the kingdom of our Father. O
Era, October 1970 3
By Dr. G. Dale Weight and
Dr. Earl M. Mortensen
• Many a northern Ohio resident
has driven through the beautiful
Chagrin River Valley, following
the winding river to Kirtland,
Ohio. As the visitor approaches
the last hill from the valley floor,
he sees a majestic building known
in the area as "the old Mormon
temple," which stands as a me-
morial to the nearly 4,000 Saints
who settled in and around Kirt-
land in the 1830s. Now, after
135 years, little remains of the
original community. The land is
rapidly being taken up by sub-
urban residents of Cleveland;
industries in the city have long
since disappeared. The accom-
panying photographs show what
remains today of this historic
ii i ' inpim
Built for worship and not for vi-
carious ordinances, as are modern
temples, the Kirtland Temple was
constructed of stone and then
plastered with stucco containing
small pieces of fine china and
crystal to give the building a
glistening effect. Its dedication
in March 1836 was marked with
numerous heavenly manifesta-
tions, including the visitation of
the Savior, Moses, Elias, and
About three miles south of the
temple is the limestone quarry
where stone for the temple was
quarried. Portions of the cut
stone and quarry marks still are
visible. The Prophet, members of
the First Presidency, high priests,
and elders worked in the quarry.
Joseph Street, adjacent to the
temple block, is silent evidence of
the "City of Ziori" plan designed
by Joseph Smith in 1833 for en-
Store of Newell K. Whitney and
Algernon Sidney Gilbert, with
whom Joseph Smith and his wife,
Emma, lived for several weeks in
the upper portion of this building
(now partially restored) imme-
diately after their arrival in Kirt-
land in February 1831. See His-
tory of the Church, Volume 1,
page 146, for the fascinating story
on the arrival of Joseph Smith.
Dr. G. Dale Weight, a Sunday School teacher in the Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania)
Second Ward, is assistant vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of
Cleveland, Pittsburgh Branch. Dr. Earl M. Mortensen, Cleveland (Ohio) Stake
YMMIA superintendent, is associate professor of chemistry at Cleveland State
North of the temple in a small
cemetery are the gravestones of
Hyrum Smith's wife, Jerusha
Barden Smith, and the Prophet's
grandmother, Mary B. Smith.
Also buried nearby are the Proph-
et's twin son and daughter, who
lived but three hours after their
birth in 1831.
Johnson barn, partially restored
with new roof and siding, was
built during days of the Prophet.
Johnson home fireplace served as
heater, stove, and oven for the
6 Era, October 1970
Joseph Smith Instructing the Breth-
ren is a new painting commissioned
by the Church for use in visitors
centers and Church literature.
Painted by John Falter, well-known
American illustrator, the scene rep-
resents occasions (such as occurred
in Joseph Smith's School of the
Prophets) when Joseph Smith in-
structed Church leaders on the
doctrine and principles of the Re-
In this now calm and serene area
a few hundred feet from the John-
son farmhouse, the Prophet Jo-
seph Smith and Sidney Rigdon
suffered a brutal attack by mob-
bers on the night of March 24,
1832. Both men bore traces of
the beating the rest of their lives.
This recently restored house was
the home of President Sidney
Rigdon. A former minister of a
congregation in Mentor, five miles
north, President Rigdon was in-
strumental in bringing many
Saints into the Church.
In September 1831, Joseph Smith
and his family moved to the John-
son farmhouse at Hiram, about
30 miles southeast of Kirtland.
Numerous council and conference
meetings were held at this home,
where the Prophet lived for sev-
eral months. Some 15 revelations
in the Doctrine and Covenants
were received here. The farm-
house has been partially restored.
Handhewn beams from hardwood,
fastened together by wooden pins,
show craftsmanship of the John-
Similar signs in
^ "double -axfe*'
• Almost 3,500 years ago the an-
cestors of one of America's surviv-
ing Indian tribes came to the
Western Hemisphere from the
In the year 531 B.C., another band
of men from the land of Canaan
reached the shore of what is now
Such statements would have had
no chance of being taken seriously
a few years ago. But evidence that
they are true is circulating in the
scientific community this summer
even as Thor Heyerdahl, the Nor-
wegian hero of the Kon-Tiki raft
expedition across the Pacific Ocean,
sails the Atlantic in a boat made of
reeds in his second attempt to prove
that communication between the
Old and the New worlds has been
possible for tens of centuries.
Heyerdahl did not hear about
these ancient mariners before his
reed boat put out from the Moroc-
*John Lear, "Ancient Landings in America,"
Saturday Review, July 18, 1970, pp. 18f. Re-
printed by permission.
By John Lear
An American Indian tribe may
have ancestors in common with
the Hebrews of the Bible.
-Illustrations courtesy "Manuscripts"
can port of Safi last May. The in-
formation had been published in
quiet scholarly journals by Profes-
sor Cyrus H. Gordon, head of the
department of Mediterranean stud-
ies at Brandeis University, whose
writings are the source of what
I shall report here.
In Manuscripts, a quarterly of
the Manuscript Society, Gordon
published an account of events that
began on the U.S. military reserva-
tion at Fort Benning, Georgia. The
ruins of an old property called
Underwood Mill are there. Among
the ruins are some flat stones that
attracted the attention of Manfred
Metcalf, a Fort Benning civilian
employee, when he was assigned to
build a barbeque pit in the autumn
One of the stones that Metcalf
chose for his purpose was a sand-
stone tinged brownish yellow.
While cleaning it with the intent
of putting it into the pit lining,
Metcalf noticed that the stone was
inscribed with odd markings. He
Comparison of Aztee glyphs from Mex-
ico with Cretan glyphs on the Phaistos
Disc by Magnus Grodys of Norway
decided that the marks might be
significant and that he should turn
the stone over to the Columbus
(Georgia) Museum of Arts and
Joseph B. Mahan, Jr., director of
the museum's department of edu-
cation and research, accepted the
stone from Metcalf. Mahan is a
specialist in American Indian
archaeology and ethnology. He
happened at that moment to be
studying the culture of the Yuchi
The Yuchis had lived in Georgia
but had been driven out of their
home and had settled in Oklahoma
in 1836. Mahan found them racially
and linguistically different from
other Indians. They said they had
come to western Georgia from the
south. They also said they had
originally reached America from
the east. The south could mean
only the Gulf of Mexico, east of
which lay the Atlantic Ocean.
One custom of the Yuchis drew
Mahan's special notice. It was a
Era, October 1970 9
pilgrimage the tribesmen made to
their cultural center on the fifteenth
day of the sacred month of harvest.
For eight days they lived in booths
with roofs open to the sky but cov-
ered Over with branches and
foliage. Throughout the eight days
the festival was punctuated with
claimed to be
long, circuitous walks around a fire
that was always kept alight. Several
of the tribesmen carried long, leaf -
crested branches as they walked.
At certain times in the celebration,
large numbers of men would not
only carry the branches but would
shake them vigorously.
Mahan saw a close resemblance
between this pilgrimage of the
Yuchis and the Hebrew Feast of
the Booths ( "Tabernacles" or "Suk-
koth" ) . He thought it was too close
to be accidental. The biblical Book
of Leviticus in Chapter 23 pre-
scribes an eight-day harvest cele-
bration starting on the fifteenth day
of the sacred month. During this
period the people were to live in
booths open to the sky but covered
for the occasion with foliage, fruits,
and vegetables. Verse 37 of Chapter
23 of Leviticus mentions a counter-
part of the Yuchi fire.
The fire is missing from modern
Jewish observation of the Feast of
Booths. All details, however, are
the ones the Yuchis practice, in-
cluding the ceremonial shaking of
branches and the circumambu-
Mahan had this store of informa-
tion in his head when Metcalf
brought the stone from the ruins
of the old mill at Fort Benning.
Suppose the Yuchis were descen-
dants of the same people from
whom the Hebrews sprang. Might
the markings on Metcalf 's stone be
clues to the story of how; this
strange Indian tribe had reached
Georgia from the Mediterranean?
By the spring of 1968, Metcalf's
speculations about the stone be-
came too strong for him to contain
any longer. He sent a cast of it to
Professor Gordon at Brandeis.
Gordon matched the markings on
the stone against characters in the
script used by the Minoan people,
whose capital in the Bronze Age-
about 3,500 years ago— was Knossos
on the island of Crete.
After studying the inscription,
Gordon concluded that there were
affinities between it and Minoan
writing. As he put it:
"The double-axe in the lower left
corner is of course reminiscent of
Minoan civilization. The single
vertical lines remind us of the verti-
cal lines standing each for the
numeral '1' in the Aegean syllabary;
while the little circles stand for
100.' The spoked circle at the be-
ginning of the third line might be a
pictograph of the sun, but I think
it is more likely a large number
like 1000' or 10,000/ In Minoan,
a circle with four spokes equals
1000.' On the Metcalf Stone there
are seven spokes, suggesting that if
1000' is not the value, perhaps it
is some larger round number such
as 10,000' . . . !"
The numerals left him with the
impression that the text may have
been an inventory, with the final
line consisting of the double-ax, a
Minoan fraction standing for 1/60
of the whole, and an ingot. A pos-
sible translation, he thought, might
have been "a double-ax weighing
one mina and made of copper." He
presented this, however, as "merely
a provisional suggestion."
Gordon made a preliminary study
of key words in Yuchi and could
not detect any relationship between
them and any other languages
known to him. Consequently, he
proposed no linguistic identification
of the Metcalf Stone "but only a
connection with the Aegean script."
Last February, after his report in
Manuscripts was published, Gordon
had an opportunity to show a cast
of the stone to Stanislav Segert, pro-
fessor of Semitic languages at the
University of Prague, Czecho-
slovakia, who identified the script
as a product of the second millen-
nium before Christ, at a time when
the Aegean peoples were shifting
from a syllabary— a system of writ-
ten characters representing spoken
syllables— to an alphabet.
Segert is a conservative linguist
of international repute. His char-
acterization of the Metcalf Stone
provided further substantiation of a
pattern of new discoveries that
Gordon had put together. Earlier,
a set of similarities between Minoan
writing and Mayan writing had
been pointed out by Pierre Honore
in his book In Quest of the White
God (Putnam, New York, 1964).
And independent of both the Met-
calf Stone and Honores observa-
tions was a third set of striking
similarities between the Phaistos
Disc from Crete and glyphs of the
Aztecs. These last were called to
Gordon's attention by Magnus
Grodys of Norway.
Ancient Aegean writing near
three different sectors of the Gulf
of Mexico could only "reflect
Bronze Age transatlantic communi-
cation between the Mediterranean
and the New World around the
middle of the second millennium
B.C.," Gordon wrote in Manuscripts,
"The reader should not get the
impression that the links between
the Old and the New Worlds in
antiquity are limited to the data
outlined above. The facts pouring
in from every side bring us to the
same general conclusion that an-
cient American civilization was
stimulated by transoceanic contacts
from the east and west; among them
contacts with the Mediterranean
were especially creative. This is
borne out by the discovery of Alex-
ander von Wuthenau that before
300 ad. no American Indian types
are depicted in the tens of thou-
sands of sculptured ceramic figu-
rines from Mesoamerica. . . . [The
images are] only Far Eastern, Afri-
can Negro, and various Mediter-
ranean types— especially Semites."
In Dialogue, a Mormon journal,
Gordon discussed a copy of a
Canaanite text that was mailed to
the Institute Historico in Rio de
Janeiro in 1872 by a person who
claimed in the covering letter that
his slaves had found an inscribed
stone on his plantation at Pouso
Alto near Paraiba. There are two
Paraibas in Brazil, one near Rio de
Janeiro and the other far to the
north where Brazil protrudes east-
ward toward Africa. Because of
confusion over the two sites, the
stone itself has never been recov-
ered, although it is now being
sought in the southern region of
Paraiba by Estanislau Vera, a jurist
Professor Jules Piccus of the
University of Massachusetts dis-
covered an unpublished 1874 tran-
script of the Brazil text in 1968.
Piccus sent Gordon a Xerox copy of
the 1874 facsimile and asked for an
opinion. Gordon found the text full
of data that were unknown to
scholars in the 1870s but that have
come to light since then. Gordon
took this as evidence that the text
was genuine, and he identified the
inscription as a nonfunerary com-
memorative text in three parts: an
introduction identifying the author,
the body of the text narrating the
event commemorated, and a finale
invoking divine favor. His trans-
lation reads as follows:
"We are Sidonian Canaanites
from the city of the Mercantile
King. We were cast up on this
distant shore, a land of mountains.
We sacrificed a youth to the celes-
tial gods and goddesses in the nine-
teenth year of our mighty King
Hiram and embarked from Ezionge-
ber into the Red Sea. We voyaged
with ten ships and were at sea
together for two years around
Africa. Then we were separated by
the hand of Baal and were no
longer with our companions. So we
have come here, twelve men and
three women, into 'New Shore.'
Am I, the admiral, a man who
would flee? Nay! May the celestial
gods and goddesses favor us well!"
Gordon said the King Hiram
mentioned was not Hiram I ( tenth
Century B.C.), but Hiram III (553-
533 b.c.). Since the voyagers left
home in the nineteenth year of his
reign, the year of embar cation was
therefore 534 b.c. Two-and-a-
fraction years later, when the ship
reached Brazil ("New Shore"), the
year was 531 b.c.
"Accordingly," Gordon conclud-
ed, "in the sixth century b.c. we
know of one vessel that crossed the
Atlantic with fifteen people from
"From the hand of Baal" means
"by an act of God" and, Gordon
noted, does not necessarily imply
that the ocean crossing was acci-
dental, because of a storm. Lots
may have been drawn to determine
which ship should sail to America.
Who were the Canaanites? Ac-
cording to Gordon, the term has
two meanings in biblical Hebrew:
"As a common noun it means
merchants'; as a proper noun it
designates a group of linguistically
related inhabitants of Lebanon-
Syria-Palestine embracing Phoeni-
cians, Hebrews, Edomites, Moab-
ites, and others." Gordon cautioned
against the common mistake of
imagining people in terms of stereo-
types. Although all Phoenicians are
thought of as sailors, many in fact
were craftsmen and even farmers.
The Hebrews "are often fancied to
be a nation of Yahwistic land lub-
bers; but the Bible tells us that .
three of the tribes ( Dan, Asher, and
Zebulun ) were nautical ( Genesis
49:13; Judges 5:17) " Hebrews
may have been in the Brazilian ex-
pedition, Gordon wrote, but that
"cannot as yet be proved" from the
inscription. The Canaanite speech-
community embraced both Yah-
wists and Baalists. The text men-
tions Baal but not Yahweh.
What kinds of ships these ancient
mariners used in sailing from the
land of Canaan to America is still
a mystery. Many passages in the
Bible suggest that the cedars of
Lebanon were always sought for
long voyages by the Hebrews and
the people they traded with. Thor
Heyerdahl persists in believing that
trips across the Atlantic could have
been accomplished— either by acci-
dent or by design— in boats made
Last year Hyerdahl constructed,
behind the pyramids of Giza in
Egypt, a reed basket shaped like a
swan just under 50 feet long and
just over 16 feet wide with a bottom
4.5 feet thick. In May 1969 he sailed
in this craft from the Atlantic port
of Safi in Morocco with a crew of
seven men from as many different
nations. Because of faults in the
design, the reed boat— which had
been christened Ra after the Egyp-
tian sun god— had to be abandoned
after traveling 2,700 miles and
within a week's sail of Barbados.
Still convinced that his theories
are correct, Hyerdahl this year built
a somewhat shorter reed boat in
courtyard of Taib Amara, the Pasha
of Safi. Heyerdahl set sail in it on
May 17, again with an international
crew under the United Nations'
flag, with the expectation of reach-
ing Yucatan before the end of
Era, October 1970 11
Latter day Saint
By Dr. Ross T. Christensen
Illustrated by Jerry Pulsipher
• Members of the Church are no
doubt aware of a number of recent
attempts to establish the reality of
transoceanic contacts between the
Old World and the New prior to
The most highly publicized of
these attempts may have been the
epic voyages, from Morocco on the
Atlantic coast of Africa to the
island of Barbados off the north
coast of South America, of the
intrepid Norwegian mariner and
scientist, Thor Heyerdahl, in reed
boats christened the Rd (1969)
and Rd II (1970). You will no doubt
remember Heyerdahl's 1947 voyage
of the Kon Tiki in which he demon-
strated the feasibility of crossing
the Pacific in a vessel fashioned to
imitate those known to have plied
the west coast of South America
at the coming of the Spaniards. His
experiments of 1969 and 1970 now
make it clear that ancient civilized
peoples of the Mediterranean area
were able to cross the Atlantic to
the Americas in vessels fashioned
after those illustrated in wall
paintings of ancient Egyptian
tombs. But other efforts to investi-
gate the presumed crossings of an-
cient man are also worthy of note.
A symposium on transoceanic con-
tacts was held as a special feature
of the 1968 annual meeting of the
Society for American Archaeology
in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Most of
the 28 papers listed to be read at
the symposium bore directly on the
question of contact between the
Old and New Worlds, across
Dr. Ross T. Christensen, professor of archaeology and anthropology at Brig-
ham Young University, spent the year 1968-69 in research on Phoenician
civilization. He teaches the Gospel Doctrine class in the Orem 35th Ward.
! r 'W' : "
(New Evidence on Pre-Columbian Crossings
to the Ancient New World)
either the Atlantic Ocean or the
Pacific. Such subjects as the fol-
lowing were presented: boats and
rafts; transoceanic travels of maize
(corn), beans, squash, coconuts,
sweet potatoes, cotton, and gourds,
and of chickens and pottery; Vin-
land; Quetzalcoatl; and the contro-
versy between Diffusionism and
One of the most significant
papers was read by a Latter-day
Saint, Dr. John L. Sorenson, who
listed 140 specific trait correspon-
dences and grouped them together
into 21 major categories. His con-
clusion: ". . . to a significant degree
Mesoamerican civilization had
roots in the Near East."
Evidence at present suggests
that the principal agents of pre-
Columbian contact between the
two hemispheres may have been
the Phoenicians. Hence, some
scholars have awakened to a keen
interest in the Phoenician civiliza-
tion and an intense curiosity about
evidence favoring ancient trans-
Latter-day Saints also should
find this development interesting,
from both the biblical and the Book
of Mormon viewpoints. There is a
good possibility, in fact, that the
Mulekites of the latter scripture
were largely Phoenician in their
Just who were the Phoenicians,
and how did they relate to the
peoples of the Bible and the Book
of Mormon? The Phoenician civili-
zation was Semitic, and its original
speech was identical with ancestral
Hebrew. Its homeland lay along
the eastern coast of the Mediter-
ranean Sea from northern Palestine
to a point opposite the island of
Cyprus. Actually, they were one
of the peoples that lived in the
area known as Canaan. Hence, at
Era, October 1970 13
a point in their history they were
identified and called Canaanites.
Today the people of Lebanon are
probably their purest descendants.
Although Arabic in speech because
of the Moslem conquest of the
seventh century A.D., the Lebanese
are nevertheless becoming aware
that they are really Phoenicians.
There are numerous references
in the Bible to the Phoenicians.
The most useful passages are found
in the books of Kings, Chronicles,
and Ezekiel. You may recall the
remarkable friendship between
King Hiram of Tyre and the kings
David and Solomon of Israel. Tyre
was at that time the principal
". . .the Lebanese
aware that they
kingdom of the Phoenicians, and
in fact the terms Tyrian and
Sidonian (from Sidon, another
important Phoenician city) were
synonyms for Phoenician.
Recently, Dr. William F. Al-
bright has shown that the great
day of Phoenician exploration and
colonization in the Mediterranean
area began shortly after King David
destroyed the Philistine empire
about 990 B.C. With this act, not
only was Israel freed but Phoenicia
also. In any case, only shortly
after this, clear evidence appears of
Phoenician activity in the Medi-
terranean, even to a point as far
westward as Spain.
Later, when Sargon II, king of
Assyria, led the northern tribes of
Israel away as slaves— about 721
B.C.— he also conquered the Phoeni-
cians, who were never powerful
after that. However, they did not
come to an end as a free people
until the year 572 B.C., when
Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,
conquered them shortly after his
destruction of Jerusalem.
With this brief biblical back-
ground, consider some of the Book
of Mormon possibilities. The Ne-
phite scripture recounts the coming
of three distinct colonies from the
ancient Near East: that of Jared
and his brother, that of Lehi, and
that of Mulek. Who were these
"Mulekites" or, as Mormon refers
to the descendants of this last-
mentioned colony, "people of Zara-
No answer is given in the text,
except for the mention of Mulek
himself, a young son of King
Zedekiah who evidently, unknown
to the authors of the Bible, escaped
the wrath of the Babylonians. He
was, of course, a Jew of the house
of David. But what of the mem-
bers of his colony?
If you had been the guardian of
a young scion of the royal family,
charged with protecting his life,
and you had known that the rest of
the king's sons were rounded up
and slaughtered in the presence of
their father and then the mon-
arch's eyes put out in order that his
last visual memory might be of the
death of his flesh and blood (2
Kings 25:7 and Jeremiah 39:6-7),
perhaps you would have taken
If you had wanted to leave by
sea, whose help would you have
sought? Who were the finest mar-
iners in existence in that genera-
tion? The Phoenicians. It was the
Phoenicians who had circumnavi-
gated the continent of Africa not
long before this-about 660 B.C.-
for the first time in recorded his-
tory. This was done during the
lifetime of Zedekiah and at the
behest of Necho II, Pharaoh of
Egypt. Following the sixth century,
no such feat was accomplished
again for another 2,000 years, when
the Portuguese navigator, Vasco da
Gama, did it in 1498.
It is only a hypothesis,** of course,
that Mulek escaped with the help
of Phoenician mariners, but this
view takes on substance when one
considers the name of the principal
watercourse of the Book of Mor-
mon: the river Sidon. In fact, the
Sidon is the only river 'even men-
tioned in the record. Why would
the Nephites give the name of the
principal metropolis of the Phoeni-
cian homeland— Sidon— to their main
watercourse? The answer is prob-
ably that the Nephites did not give
it that name; the Mulekites did. The
first mention of the Sidon in the
Nephite record, in fact, is not until
after King Mosiah brought his
people down out of their mountain
kingdom about 200 B.C. and dis-
covered the city of Zarahemla.
Omni records (vss. 17, 18) that
in order to communicate with the
newly discovered Mulekites, there
had to be a lapse of time until they
could be taught the Nephite lan-
guage. The implication is that four
centuries of isolation had resulted
in marked differences between two
languages supposedly derived from
Hebrew. However, it is probably
closer to the mark to think that the
original Mulekite language was not
Hebrew but actually Phoenician, a
language closely related to Hebrew
but sufficiently different even in
600 B.C. for the difference to be
recognized. Four hundred years
later, the two tongues may have
separately evolved to a point where
they would hardly have been in-
telligible to each other.
The account of Hagoth in the
Book of Mormon (Al. 63) finds
°I obtained the essential idea of this
Phoenician-Mulekite hypothesis years ago in a
conversation with John L. Sorenson. So far as I
know, the first published mention of it appears
in his article in The Improvement Era, Vol. 60,
(May 1957), pp. 330-31. Dr. Sorenson in turn
may have gotten it during his student days at
Brigham Young University from M. Wells Jake-
man, his professor in archaeology.
some striking parallels in the his-
tory of the Phoenicians and their
descendants at Carthage. Hagoth's
method of colonizing by sea was
not typical of the ancient Israelites.
But it was typical of the Phoeni-
cians, and it is possible that
Phoenician seamanship and atti-
tudes toward the sea persisted for
centuries among the Mulekites, at
least to the time of Hagoth, around
Quite aside from the fascinating
likelihood of a specific Phoenician
element in the Book of Mormon, it
is becoming increasingly probable
that Phoenician seamen reached
other places in the New World
during the great years of their
civilization, i.e., roughly between
1000 and 500 B.C. Actually, one
could plot on a map, from New
England to Brazil, the find-spots of
a number of purported Phoenician
inscriptions. But these writings
discovered along the Atlantic sea-
board probably have nothing to do
with Book of Mormon peoples.
They doubtless represent the visits
of other travelers in no way con-
nected with the Nephite scripture.
A startling example is that of the
Paraiba text found in Brazil in 1872.
This commemorative inscription re-
cords in the Phoenician language
a voyage of mariners from Sidon
who set sail into the Red Sea, cir-
cumnavigated Africa in a clockwise
direction, became separated from
their nine companion ships in the
South Atlantic, and landed pre-
sumedly on the eastern tip of South
America near Joao Pessoa. Thanks
to the scholarship of Dr. Cyrus H.
Gordon of Brandeis University be-
ginning in 1968, the Paraiba text
now yields a clear account of an
actual voyage from the Near East
to ancient America of which we
can practically pinpoint the place
and date of both departure and
arrival. Embarkation: Sidon, 534
B.C.; disembarkation, coast of
Brazil, 531 B.C. Although there
seems to be no connection with the
Book of Mormon, note that this
voyage took place in the same
century as the voyages of Lehi and
Mulek and also, incidentally, that
of Necho of Egypt.
An intriguing discovery— appar-
ently unrelated either to the Phoeni-.
cians or to the Book of Mormon
account— is that of a site called
Mystery Hill, located in the thickly
wooded terrain near North Salem
in southern New Hampshire. Else-
where in New England more than
75 other constructions of similar
rough-hewn stonework have also
been discovered. A prominent fea-
ture of this whole puzzling complex
of ruins is the corbeled vault or
Some have said the Indians built
the New England ruin sites, but
they do not fit into Indian culture
at all. Others have said they were
built by early New England farm-
ers of British extraction; but even
though colonial farmers did in fact
use them at a later time for stables
and root cellars and left their arti-
facts strewn about, it is clear that
they were not the original builders,
for the strange ruins are very un-
English in their architecture. One
writer was convinced that Mystery
Hill had been built by a band of
Irish monks fleeing from the Vik-
ings. Another believed that the
monks had been later occupants of
the site but had not built it in the
None of these explanations, how-
ever, is satisfactory. Recently,
radiocarbon dating has assisted in
formulating a better one. Mystery
Hill seems to have been occupied
around 1000 B.C. So far, the evi-
dence argues for a transatlantic
crossing of colonists connected with
the "Megalithic Civilization" of the
Late Bronze Age of western Eu-
In the July 18, 1970, issue of Sat-
urday Review, John Lear wrote an
article entitled "Ancient Landings
in America: An American Indian
Tribe may have Ancestors in Com-
mon With the Hebrews of the
Bible" (see p. 9). In it he tells of
the work of Joseph B. Mahan, Jr.,
with the Yuchi tribe of Georgia;
Cyrus H. Gordon's restudy of the
Phoenician text from Brazil; Thor
Heyerdahl's successful crossing of
the Atlantic in a papyrus reed boat;
and other examples of the mount-
ing evidence. A few years ago, the
author stated, affirmative conclu-
sions based on such studies "would
have had no chance of being taken
seriously. . . ." But this past sum-
mer, with Heyerdahl still on the
high seas, Lear wrote in his paper
that "evidence that they are true is
circulating in the scientific com-
munity. . . ." And his article sug-
gests that he, along with many
others of this community, has been
much impressed by what has de-
What does all this mean to Lat-
ter-day Saints? The refreshing new
evidence now coming in may well
please them. For over one hun-
dred years they have been pro-
claiming such things but have not
been "taken seriously," either by the
world or by scholars. Now, appar-
ently, it is about to become scien-
tifically respectable to hold views
of pre-Columbian crossings from
the ancient East. While many of
the findings that support such views
probably have nothing to do with
the particular peoples mentioned in
the Book of Mormon, still Latter-
day Saint beliefs about Jaredites,
Lehites, and Mulekites coming to
the New World now fit into a
context of thought that is becom-
ing acceptable to scholars for the
first time in the twentieth century.
The Prophet Joseph Smith would
have been greatly interested in the
recent turn of events and in scholar-
ly responses thereto.
Era, October 1970 15
By Lorin F.
• "Let every page radiate the Spirit of Christ!" That
has been our constant prayer in publishing the In-
structor. Some of us view with sentimental attachment
the passing of this old friend of the family. We rejoice
in its long life and good deeds, and we feel confident
its spirit will continue to be felt in the new publica-
tions designed by its trustees. Those of us who have
worked most intimately to expand its mission now
pause a moment to share a few glimpses of its private
life. Take my hand, as this magazine took mine many
I first knew the Juvenile Instructor as a large book
that my mother would let me explore when I was
good. I remember how she read stories from its pages
and showed to me its fascinating pictures. My fingers
would trace the indented embossing of its cover. The
fancy printing impressed me long before I could read.
My mother sang the songs it brought to our home. Not
until recently did I realize why one of them was her
Lorin F. Wheelwright has been an associate editor of
the Instructor since 1959. A member of the general
board of the Sunday School, he is dean of the College
of Fine Arts and Communications at Brigham Young
As I was thumbing through the bound volumes in
our Sunday School library, the thought struck me:
"What was the Instructor printing the month I was
born?" Those would be the pages my mother read
during the days when she first held me in her arms.
You can imagine my emotion as I saw in print the
simple, original version of
"Oh, Hush thee, my baby, a story I'll tell,
How little Lord Jesus on earth came to dwell." 1
I looked for the composer. His name was Joseph
Ballantyne, an old neighbor in Ogden and the hus-
band of my first Sunday School teacher. This song
warmed my mother's heart. She loved its sweet
melody and gentle text. She sang it to me, and I have
loved it ever since.
This warm, personal feeling has glowed in the In-
structor through the years and has reached out from
mind to mind and heart to heart. It is this legacy of
love that we have nurtured most tenderly while its
life has been entrusted to our care.
The Instructor was fathered by a man of God. George
Q. Cannon emigrated from England and leaped onto
the dock at Nauvoo when he was a boy of 15, filled
with curiosity to meet the Prophet Joseph Smith. He
later wrote, "[I] would have known him among ten
The Instructor AVoice of Truth for 105 Years
l866 - I97O
thousand. There was that about him which to [my]
eyes distinguished him from all the men [I] had ever
With this personal conviction, Brother Cannon be-
came a powerful missionary of the Church. He was
a member of Parley P. Pratt's company that entered the
Salt Lake Valley in October 1847. Three years later
he sailed to Hawaii as one of the first nine mission-
aries to those islands. Through the gift of tongues he
learned the native language and translated the Book
of Mormon. He later became editor of the Deseret
News and a member of the Council of the Twelve.
He was called by John Taylor (along with Joseph F.
Smith) to be his counselor in the First Presidency.
He loved to write, and his book A Child's Story of
the Prophet Joseph Smith is a classic. It appeared
first as a biographical series of articles in the magazine.
This man founded the Juvenile Instructor as a non-
profit, private enterprise in 1865. In 1900 he recalled:
"Upon my return, in 1864, I organized a Sunday
School in the 14th Ward, and other schools were
organized directly afterwards. As soon thereafter as I
could I published a little work, which I named The
Juvenile Instructor. The Juvenile Instructor has been
one of the best labors that I have ever been engaged in,
because I have felt that it was doing good to our
children. . . ," 3
At the turn of the century President Cannon sold his
printing business to the Church, but not the Juvenile
Instructor. This was bought by the general board of
the Sunday School as its official organ. President
Grant said of this transaction, "The Juvenile Instructor,
so long and favorably known in the community, and
so great a factor in the development of the Sunday
School work of the Church, should be that organ."*
In his last editorial as publisher of the magazine,
George Q. Cannon wrote:
"It has found a welcome place in the family circle.
. . . My desire and hope is that it may continue to
enjoy the favor and affection of its readers ... in
supplying pure, sound, wholesome and instructive
reading matter for the rising generation among the
people of God." 3
This publication began as a general magazine— a
pioneering combination of Readers Digest, Popular
Mechanics, and religious tract. It gradually evolved
into "The Teacher's Magazine of the Church."
For many years it carried lesson outlines and was
published in small sizes. Under the leadership of
Superintendent George R. Hill and his first assistant,
David Lawrence McKay, it took its present size and
broadened its appeal. When I was called as associate
editor, we adopted a policy of riding two rails, both
Era, October 1970 17
1. The Instructor helps Sunday School teachers
enrich specific lessons with articles, illustrations, and
2. The Instructor strengthens testimony and in-
spires all readers to live the gospel.
Readership studies have verified that about half of
our subscribers do not hold Sunday School positions
but continue their subscriptions because of the maga-
"Gethsemane is ... a crisis
that each of us can expect
to experience sometime
in his life"
zine's inspirational value. The balance use it in specific
teaching assignments. In recent years, footnotes have
identified the lessons intended for enrichment. The
writing style and format have been directed to the
In this limited space, let me share a few personal
experiences in creating the Instructor. Many articles
stand alone, but some have appeared in series. "Ad-
ventures of the Spirit" was a series born during an
assignment from President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. He
invited me one day to visit his study for the purpose of
making his photographic portrait. With a maroon
woolen blanket as a backdrop, President Clark sat
patiently under the bright lights and discussed his
life and interests. Photographer Ralph Clark and I
posed him in various attitudes. I remember asking
him, "What is your favorite passage from the Bible?"
As he sank into deep thought, he leaned upon his
cane and we captured a mood that thrilled us. It led
me to ponder the significance of spiritual experiences.
I did not intend to write an article at the time, but
after thinking about our six-hour conversation with
this grand patriarch, I wrote the first of a series on
the spiritual adventures of our leaders. i;
One of the finest series we ever undertook in the
Instructor was entitled "I Believe." 7 It was designed to
help students in special fields of scholarship under-
stand that faithful Latter-day Saints can also be dis-
tinguished scholars. Henry Eyring recruited authors,
and David Lawrence McKay helped edit the series.
Each article dealt with a specific problem of indi-
vidual belief. There was room for some differences
of opinion. One author said, "I submit this for publi-
cation only if it is read and approved by a responsible
General Authority." It was read to President David
O. McKay, our editor, and he approved it for our
purposes. We found it helped readers when we ex-
plained our purpose for the series and particularly
the care with which we verified authors and points
One touching response to the first article in the
series came from the daughter of an old school friend.
She now was the mother of several children and was
deeply concerned about her father's drifting from the
Church. She said, "When I read your article on
truth, N I prayed for you to call upon my father and
give him a copy. He needs to know that there is a
place for him in the Church."
This is an unfinished story, but seeds have been
planted for his rebirth.
Another series came into being during a trip to the
Holy Land, one year prior to the Six-Day War. Sister
Wheelwright and I were returning from an assignment
in New Zealand. We spent the most concentrated two
weeks of our lives walking where Jesus walked. We
rejoiced in discovering for ourselves the spiritual birth-
place of Christianity. The musical echoes of each
event that once transpired there spilled over into the
pictures and writing of the series "Reverence for Holy
Places." 9 The response was overwhelming. A land-
lady at Columbia University, whom I had not seen for
thirty years, wrote a letter filled with tears of joy,
requesting three extra copies for two ministers and a
friend. A nonmember with whom I sat on a board
of directors said the articles and pictures inspired him
to finance a special trip for his minister to the Holy
Land. One of the General Authorities requested re-
prints for his personal Christmas cards.
The most rewarding response came from a fellow
board member who spoke to me after reading the
article on Gethsemane. He had been stricken far
from home with acute kidney stones, and his physical
condition prevented the use of anesthetics. He told
me how he agonized during the operation and shared
the Savior's cry, "If it be possible, let this cup pass
from me." He expressed his appreciation for the arti-
cle, which said, "Gethsemane is not a place but a
crisis that each of us can expect to experience some-
time in his life."
Truman G. Madsen wrote a series for us on Eternal
Man, 1 " which has helped college students to see the
compatibility of truth with truth, regardless of origin.
Reed H. Bradford has brought monthly to us his warm,
intimate understanding of the spiritual bonds of love,
human and divine. Wendell J. Ashton has inspired our
readers with his back-page insights into gospel living
today. Marie F. Felt has dramatized with flannel-
board stories events in the lives of religious heroes.
President McKay, many General Authorities, the Sun-
day School general superintcndency, general board
members, and Saints everywhere have used these
pages to tell how Sunday School is truly a school for
life eternal. Reorganization of the general board by
Superintendent David Lawrence McKay brought re-
finement to the editorial policy and reinforced the
high spiritual level of content.
For a decade our managing editor was Boyd Hatch-
paralyzed, in a wheelchair, yet buoyant in spirit and
precise in details. With his help we streamlined our
circulation program and helped Instructor-use direc-
tors to work as a team. Since his passing, Sister Burl
Shephard has mothered the editorial staff and tucked
each issue to bed with promptness and loving care.
Her consummate skill in organizing the many sugges-
tions of our board has brought hundreds of new
authors before the Church with experiences that in-
form and inspire teachers.
The dedication of our general board has given the
Instructor its relevance to readers. All members of
the board have met in small groups at the course
levels of child (under General Superintendent Mc-
Kay), youth (under First Assistant Lynn S. Richards),
and adult (under Second Assistant Royden G. Derrick)
to suggest enrichment features. This involvement has
brought a harvest of ideas, authors, and favorable
response. General Superintendents George R. Hill
and David Lawrence McKay, under whom I have
served, have guided our efforts. They have stead-
fastly preserved our financial solvency, avoiding
advertising as incompatible with our purpose, and
have encouraged fresh ideas, beautiful color, reprints,
and many innovations to extend our usefulness.
I think of the Instructor as personifying the music
entitled "On Wings of Song." It has taught conductors
and organists and has introduced many of our beloved
hymns to the Church for the first time. But it has
done more— it has echoed in every issue that ever-
lasting carol of the angels, "Peace on earth, goodwill
It is this song of the Savior that has inspired editors
and authors to share intimate spiritual experiences with
readers. In response, we have received letters such as
this one from a front-line post in Vietnam: "I am on
the night watch. In moments of anxious waiting I
read the Instructor. ... It helps me remember who
I am, why I am here, and where I am going. It
sustains me in this hour. Thank you." A father tells
us, "You bring joy to our family circle." A teacher
scribbles on the edge of her renewal card, "Thanks
for boosting my morale and putting tools in my hands
to build God's kingdom." To reach deeply into
the lives of many people has been our blessing.
The best way I can share this joy is to tell you about
a missionary on Temple Square. Recently he hailed
me as a long-lost friend and told me how he was send-
ing copies of the Book of Mormon to hundreds of
visitors. "And," he said, "I send a copy of that article
by Aviva Levine, which appeared seven years ago in
the Instructor." 11
One day, while visiting my brother and his wife, I
heard about a young mother they had helped to con-
vert. She was a Jewish refugee from Hungary, where
her father had been killed by the Nazis. Prior to his
abduction to a concentration camp, he placed a
book in her hand, with an embrace and a farewell kiss.
It was an old Jewish prayerbook. On the flyleaf he
had written, "Search for the Jehovah of the Old Testa-
ment. Someday you will find him." She came to
America and searched. Finally she did find him— in
the pages of the Book of Mormon.
It was a thrilling story. I invited her to tell it to
all of our readers through the Instructor. She wrote it
beautifully and with conviction. When the galley
proofs reached her home, her husband intercepted
them and, being a hostile nonmember, refused to
allow his name, which she shared, to appear on the
article. She was determined to tell her true story and
suggested using a pen name, Aviva Levine. It is her
story that is now reaching over the world with a special
message to the House of Israel: Jehovah lives and
loves his children.
The Instructor has spread these good tidings for
105 years. It was given birth to bear witness to Christ
and leaves with the same message: Jesus needs our
voice to speak for him; he needs our feet to walk his
way; and he needs our hands to do his work. In that
spirit we bid farewell to George Q. Cannon's "little
work" and rejoice that it grew to wield a powerful
influence for good. O
Historical references are quoted from Lawrence R. Flake, The De-
velopment of the Juvenile Instructor under George Q. Cannon and its
Functions in Latter-day Saint Religious Education, Master's Thesis,
Brigham Young University, 1969.
1 The Juvenile Instructor, Vol. 44 (December 1909), p. 522.
2 George Q. Cannon, "The 'Choice Seer,' " in his Life of Joseph Smith
(Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1888), p. xxvi.
3 Jubilee History of Latter-day Saints Sunday Schools (Salt Lake City:
Deseret Sunday School Union, 1900), p. 533.
4 Heber J. Grant, Conference Reports, April 7, 1901, p. 79.
5 George Q. Cannon, "Editorial Thoughts," Juvenile Instructor, Vol. 35
(December 15, 1900), p. 822.
November 1961— six features published variously through December
7 Series of 14 articles published variously from April 1965 through
8 "Life's Greatest Adventure Is the Pursuit of Truth," April 1965,
Series of eight color pictures and articles published variously from
July 1966 through December 1967.
10 Series of six articles published variously from March 1964 through
1 1 Aviva Levine, "Why I Became a Mormon," published in March
1964, p. 125.
Era, October 1970 19
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Oct. 1970 Era
Ella Mae didn't see the big truck.
Pasili was afraid and very sad.
Angel and his mother can smile now.
The Primary Children's Hospital
Takes a Big Step Forward
• "The Primary Children's Hospital
has long been a leader in the West.
It is now destined to fill more of a
worldwide role, extending its bless-
ings to thousands of children every-
The speaker is Bishop Robert L.
Simpson of the Presiding Bishopric.
As chairman of the board of trus-
tees at the hospital, he is deeply
committed to the continuing de-
velopment of what he calls "this
unique haven for children in need
of medical services.
"As our present goals and ob-
jectives are made known," he says,
"we are confident that many
people, both members and non-
members, will welcome the oppor-
tunity to cooperate financially to
By Bernell W. Berrett
make new and dramatic progress
Sister LaVern W. Parmley, gen-
eral president of the Primary Asso-
ciation and vice-chairman of the
board, adds, "This hospital really
does belong to thousands and
thousands of people. It is a symbol
of love, service, and faith to those
who have helped to build and
In October 1969 the Primary
Children's Hospital Endowment
Committee was organized and
charged with the responsibility of
raising ten million dollars over the
next ten years to pay for necessary
expansion and improvement. Lewis
M. Jones is chairman. The director
of the committee is Thayer D.
(Turk) Evans. His voice rings
with enthusiasm and conviction as
he speaks of this great dream as a
"Our plans are big, but they do
not exceed the need," he says. "In
1959, our total admissions num-
bered slightly over 1,000. In 1969-
just ten years later— we admitted
nearly 8,000 children. In 1959, only
588 patients were operated on at
the hospital. Last year 5,783 opera-
tions were performed here. People
are usually surprised to learn that
more than 250 doctors, representing
most specialties, are now on the
hospital's medical staff."
The purpose of the endowment
fund is to produce income on a
perpetuating basis to augment
operating needs, provide financial
assistance to patients beyond that
provided by Primary pennies, ex-
pand already existing services,
establish significant new ones, and
provide money to pay for special
modern equipment and to finance
Hospital administrator Kenneth
C. Johnson explains some of the
reasons for high operating costs.
"Much of today's sophisticated
hospital equipment becomes obso-
lete almost as soon as it is installed.
We are very careful about pur-
chasing equipment, and we try to
get optimum use out of it. But if
newer equipment will give signifi-
cantly better treatment and save
lives, then it is imperative that we
The addition of one average hos-
pital room costs $8,200. A projected
open-heart surgery room would
cost around $260,000. The cost of
the new wing, dedicated in 1966,
was over $2,000,000.
Contrary to popular belief, the
operating cost of the hospital is
not subsidized by the Church.
"The Primary pennies— and, be-
lieve me, we're grateful for every
one of them— pay only a small part
of our operating budget," says
Brother Evans. "And, of course,
they do not go into the building
fund. They are used only to help
pay for the care of those in need.
This hospital must pay its own way,
and to the extent of our present
services, it does. But many who
need help have to be turned away."
All children, regardless of race,
religion, or national origin, are
eligible for service. Although a
majority of patients come from the
intermountain area, last year young-
sters from 27 states and many other
countries were admitted. The gen-
eral age range runs from infancy
to 18 years.
Hospital services are growing
faster than facilities and personnel.
One such important service is con-
cerned with mental health. Dr.
Paul L. Whitehead is over the
psychiatric section, which last year
chalked up over 20,000 outpatient
visits involving some 500 families.
Dr. Whitehead is young, person-
able, and dedicated to his profes-
sion. "There is no more rewarding
or satisfying work," he says.
"But we need more facilities. We
now have one residential psychiat-
ric home. We need six. Our in-
patient need is urgent. We have
to provide more service, not just
for 'sick' kids, but for really sick'
"It is estimated that about twenty
percent of today's children have
some need of mental treatment. Of
these we term about ten percent
as serious and about one percent
as severe. It is tragic for a need
such as this to go unfulfilled, be-
cause eighty-five percent of the
youngsters we've treated have
shown marked improvement and
have been able to make happy and
"Let me give you just a few ex-
amples," Dr. Whitehead continues.
"A 14-year-old boy saw Christmas
decorations being put up the day
after Thanksgiving and was stricken
with sudden blindness. Psychiatric
examination revealed that the
decorations had reminded him of
his father, who had died a year or
two before. Once assured that he
would see again when he had re-
solved to fully accept what had
happened, the boy regained his
sight as abruptly as he had lost it.
He is now an Eagle Scout and an
"A very somber 12-year-old girl
was referred to us because she had
lost 45 pounds and was in a state
of severe depression. She too was
grieving the loss of her father and
apparently wanted to die in order
to be with him. Under our day-
treatment program she had three
months of psychotherapy, as a re-
sult of which she regained her lost
weight and was able to return to
school. She continued treatment as
an outpatient for nine more months
and is now doing very well.
"And we had a very angry nine-
year-old boy who had been ex-
cluded from school for defiant and
injurious behavior. His discipline
had been inconsistent, and much
of his anger was directed toward
his father and problems at home.
After a year of day treatment, in-
cluding psychotherapy for himself
and counseling for his parents, he
was referred back to his regular
classes, where his school records
show great improvement."
Stories to warm the heart are
without end at the hospital. Pic-
ture Ella Mae, a shy two-year-old
Navajo girl hit by a truck when
she was just learning to walk. She
was lonely and frightened when
she first arrived; but the friendly
doctors and staff members soon
had her playing hide-and-seek with
them, her muffled giggles giving
her away as she stood full-height
under her crib with the aid of
crutches and braces.
And there was Angel, a four-year-
old boy from Chile whose short
life held only weeks of promise
without heart surgery. Complica-
tions, including a hemorrhaging
stomach ulcer, caused serious con-
cern to the doctors and nurses
responsible for his care. But today
Angel laughs happily and sports
one of the most engaging smiles
found anywhere in the beautiful
mountains of Chile.
A desperate father in the Re-
publique de Haute Volta in Africa
wrote to President David O. Mc-
Kay, "Mr. President, I beg you to
listen to me. Hear the cries for
help from a poor father." His small
son, Didier, had suffered severe
burns that left one arm adhered
to his body so that the boy could
Era, October 1970 23
**;'■"*'• .,■•" t "^S^r^^"'
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(Archaeology and the
Book of Mormon, Vol. Ill)
By Milton R. Hunter
Continues the fascinating story of ancient American civilizations as revealed
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in duotone and 16 pages full color from Dr. Hunter's superb personal col-
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parallels drawn which give further powerful evidence of the truth of that
sacred record. - a .
■,■ ■ ■■ ■
2. Thoughts for
Richard L. Evans
One hundred choice selections gleaned from the best
of "The Spoken Word" and "Thoughts for Today" as
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an exceptional reference work for use in talks, teaching,
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A sparkling account of woman's oppor-
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Shows how to bring zest and enjoy-
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7. About My
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5. The Word
Reid E. Bankhead
Glenn L. Pearson
What is the true mission of the Book of
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This well-known LDS doctor talks to
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8. Theirs is
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A fascinating, inspirational collection
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9. The Elders
Written to help Latter-day Saints under-
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endangered. Gives a sound understand-
ing of government in language for the
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not raise it. Through the cour-
tesy of an overseas airline, Didier
was flown to Salt Lake City. After
plastic surgery and tender loving
care, the boy was able to move his
arm. His doctor penned the follow-
"Didier has done quite well here
and we have enjoyed him im-
Didier could not use his arm.
mensely. The entire staff have
taken Didier into their hearts. He
has attended our hospital school
here and now speaks quite good
English, and it is not without some
regret that we release him to return
to his native country."
A letter from Africa arrived at
the hospital shortly after. The
father wrote, "Our Didier arrived
the 27th of September, healthy and
happy to see us waiting for him at
the airport. On descending from
the airplane, he raised his arm and
waved his hand in the air to show
us he has gained complete motion
of his left arm. We couldn't be-
lieve it! It was a miracle! Didier's
mother cried, his little brothers and
sisters jumped of joy once and
again, his schoolmates cried 'Viva
the Americans.' This is, indeed,
a souvenir for us to keep deep in
Space does not permit the inclu-
sion here of hundreds of similar
stories, but picture one last case.
Pasili was a very unhappy little
boy. After all, he was only three
and a half years old, and he was
all alone and far from his home
in Tonga. He couldn't understand
the nurses and they couldn't under-
stand him. But the language of
love crosses all barriers. Soon he
was following the nurses around
and responding to their friendship.
Pasili suffered a gastrointestinal
deformity that had caused a large
cyst, swelling his abdomen to huge
proportions. He was in surgery
several hours, during which time
the surgeons corrected the deformi-
ties and removed the abnormal
tissue. Today he is fully recovered.
In Tonga, when the word got
around that Pasili was coming
back, almost the entire village went
to the airport to resolve for them-
selves a controversy that had been
generated. Many insisted that
Pasili would not be on the plane
at all, that his return was all a cruel
rumor. Some said that since he
had been away only a" short time,
he could not be well or much dif-
ferent. Others believed that the
American doctors could do any-
But Pasili stepped from the plane
as happy and normal as any child
there. Doubters and believers alike
beamed, and his parents needed no
words to supplement their tears of
Doctors, nurses, and staff mem-
bers at Primary Children's Hospital
have a spirit of service that extends
far beyond required working hours
or monetary pay. Many of them
have adopted children as a result
of the mutual love that so often
develops there. Countless volun-
teers serve in the tradition of a
dentist who was once stopped by a
stranger outside the hospital and
asked, "How much do you get paid
for all the time you spend in there?"
The dentist raised his eyes to a
window where several children,
noses flattened against the glass,
grinned and waved at him. "That's
my pay," he said. "That's all the
pay a man needs."
Many private citizens, nonmem-
bers as well as members of the
Church, have learned the lesson
illustrated above: that there is
greater joy in giving than in re-
ceiving. There are many ways to
become one of the hospital's re-
vered supporters. One successful
businessman annually makes dona-
tions to the hospital in the names
of his friends. The owner of a ham-
burger chain contributes a penny
for each hamburger sold during one
month of each year. As a memorial,
some people endow a room or piece
of equipment in the name of a
loved one. Some make bequests to
the hospital in their wills. Real
estate or other property has been
signed over to the hospital, and
interest on stocks and investments
has been donated.
The hospital has come a long way
since 1911, when the Primary Asso-
ciation decided to provide a few
beds for children in the LDS Hos-
pital. The Convalescent Home on
North Temple Street, opened in
1922, served as the children's hospi-
tal until the present facility was
dedicated in 1952. A new wing was
completed in 1966.
Now, with the endowment pro-
gram getting underway, the Primary
Children's Hospital is destined to
do more than care for limited num-
bers of afflicted children. It is to
become a great medical and educa-
tional center whose influence will
be felt around the world. O
Persons having questions or de-
siring to make contributions may
write to the Primary Children's
Hospital Endowment Commit-
tee, 320 Twelfth Avenue, Salt
Lake City, Utah 84103. The tele-
phone number is 801-328-1611.
Era, October 1970 27
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• Seated before me were 15 visi-
bly restless and apprehensive indi-
viduals in wheelchairs. All had lost
the use of their lower extremities,
and about 50 percent had lost
most of the use of their arms and
Such an assembly of wheel-
chair cases was called by vocation-
al rehabilitation personnel "the
hard-core handicapped." A large-
scale attempt to develop produc-
tive places in society for them
was considered a doubtful venture,
even by experienced vocational
workers, because it was reasoned
that available time and money
could be used more optimistically
in the rehabilitation of persons
with handicaps of much less sever-
ity. Consequently, these individ-
uals, and hundreds like them,
faced nearly hopeless odds.
I had worked for several years
to persuade rehabilitation officials
that there were still untried ways
for preparing the severely handi-
capped for successful careers.
There had been so many dis-
couragements that I would have
given up trying long before except
for a consuming desire to provide
a productive life for my own se-
verely handicapped son, Randy.
Randy is the oldest of our eight
children, and he was then 15 years
of age. In most respects he is just
like our other children, and very
typical of the happy-go-lucky
youngsters in your family or the
family next door. Physically, how-
ever, he is an exception in that he
does not have the use of his legs,
arms, or hands. Those who know
him enjoy his personality, pleasant
disposition, and eagerness for ac-
tivity. These characteristics, to-
gether with an easy smile, absorb-
ing interest, and quick wit, seem
to compensate somewhat for his
serious handicaps. It has been
somewhat painful to his mother
Person to Person
By Allen R. Howell
and me that he looks forward to
the future with hope, anticipation,
enthusiasm, and the same inde-
pendence that his many physically
normal friends expect to enjoy. We
are grateful for the happy, con-
tented days of his youth but have
long recognized that his future
happiness as an adult would
be dependent upon our being able
to develop a work program that
would be effective for persons as
severely handicapped as he is.
After four years of working on
new programs for the handi-
capped, I was at last able to call
a meeting of interested people who
were lending their support to put
the programs in action. Assembled
with us in this meeting were four
somewhat nervous state vocational
rehabilitation officials. They had
reason to be uneasy, since they
were risking their professional
reputations by sponsoring us in
this new, unproven training pro-
Introductions were the first order
of business, and then the proposed
nine-month training program in
insurance and investments was
outlined to these prospective stu-
dents. The program was complete-
ly new and had been specifically
designed to make participation
convenient for them.
Soon the meeting was turned into
a get-acquainted session, and every
individual was absorbed in hear-
ing the variety of answers being
Allen R. Howell, teachers quorum
adviser in the Bluffdale (Utah)
Ward, is president of Ability Agen-
cies Institute, with national training
headquarters located at Utah State
Era, October 1970 29
given to the question: "How did
you happen to get stuck in that
One of the group, Mark, recalled
for us a pleasant summer day
when the sunlight sparkled bright-
ly from the surface of a beach
where a carefree group of boys, at
the lake for an outing, tossed
a tennis ball back and forth in a
friendly game of "keep away." A
wild throw sent the ball splashing
into the water. Mark, the first to
reach the lake, hit the water in an
arching dive to retrieve the ball.
The water was deceptively shal-
low, and Mark's head unexpected-
ly struck the hard-packed sand at
the bottom, and the bones of his
neck snapped. In this instant not
only Mark's neck but also his
plans for the future were broken.
His plans must now be restricted
to include only those things that
"The Spoken Word" from Temple
Square, presented over KSL and the
Columbia Broadcasting System
August 9, 1970. ©1970.
'This new morality"
By Richard L. Evans
% A / ith some satire but more of soberness one observer had this
\ / \ / to say: "It looks like this new morality is about the same as the
V Void immorality." 1 We hear both loose and thoughtful talk
about what is and isn't moral. And some would no doubt go so far
as to say that morality is a matter of personal opinion or personal
preference. But obeying only laws or standards or commandments we
agree with, and indulging in anything we want to, is obeying no law
but our own. And going in that direction could lead to absolute law-
lessness — and in absolute lawnessness we couldn't live at all. Doesn't
the answer, after all, lie along these lines: Whatever diminishes life,
whatever impairs the mental or spiritual or physical capacity of people,
is basically wrong. Whatever contributes to ill health, to unhappiness,
disease, loose or lawless living, or an unquiet conscience— whatever
pulls people down to a lower level — isn't all such basically wrong, or
even immoral? When we make life less, when we deliberately damage
something precious that we can't replace, isn't there a moral side to
all such? There are some things that are precious, priceless, irreplace-
able, and if someone acquires such habits, or partakes of such things
as to impair any part of his mental or physical or spiritual capacity, or
to neglect or abuse himself, his loved ones, or his opportunities in life,
isn't there a moral issue in it? Ignoring the experience of the past is a
cause of much concern, because great civilizations have indulged and
debauched themselves into decay and because there are eternal values
and eternal truths— among them the sanctity of the home, of marriage,
chastity, faithfulness, the integrity of family, and clean and honest con-
duct. These are still basic to health, to happiness, to inner peace, and
to the good and safety of society. And despite all rationalizing, when
the so-called new morality is essentially the same as the old immorality,
we may expect essentially the same consequences — as the past has so
'Rotary Club bulletin of Graham, Texas (author unknown).
can be done from a wheelchair,
by a person with almost total
As Mark completed the details
of his story, two other persons, Ty
and Conrad, let Mark know how
similar their accidents were to his.
Each circumstance involved a
friendly game of tag and a neck-
breaking dive into unexpectedly
Two other clean-cut young men
had been on missions when their
troubles occurred. Howard was
hurt when the chain of the bicycle
he was riding across a busy high-
way in Argentina broke and he was
hit by an automobile.
While on his mission to the
eastern United States, Kim started
losing the use of his legs. The doc-
tor informed him that he had a
tumor in his spinal column. It was
only a short time later that he be-
came confined to a wheelchair.
The largest single cause of in-
jury was automobile accidents. Be-
sides Howard, we learned that Jim,
Cheryl, Burke, David, and Rolland
were victims of this type of acci-
Nelma, the only student who
was not then in a wheelchair, had
multiple sclerosis, which was slow-
ly draining away her strength and
The following morning the nine-
month course was officially begun
at a convalescent center where
students could live in the facility
with full nursing care, if needed.
Physical therapy, meals, recrea-
tion, and other services were readi-
We were pleased to discover the
enthusiasm and diligence with
which the students approached
their studies. As a result of their
perseverance, a series of good
things began to happen almost
from the very beginning. The class
set one of the highest average
scores of any group that had ever
taken the state's insurance exam-
ination. When the first class was
graduated, another was begun al-
The editor of the American Jour-
nal of Insurance visited us to do a
feature story on the group. Since
this magazine is the official voice
of the Mutual Insurance Compan-
ies, the article was distributed on
a nationwide basis. The Journal of
Insurance Information, the official
voice of the Stock Insurance Com-
panies, also published an article,
and U. S. News and World Report,
Time, and Reader's Digest fea-
tured the class in articles.
The Insurance Rehabilitation
Study Group in New York request-
ed material to be presented in
Washington, D. C. T at a meeting
of the President's Committee on
Employment of the Handicapped.
The committee liked the program
and distributed information on a
nationwide basis, and the Com-
missioner of Rehabilitation in
Washington, D.C., circularized it
to rehabilitation agencies of all 50
One of the students was cited
by the governor for outstanding
rehabilitation achievements and
shortly afterwards, the same stu-
dent was flown to Washington to
receive honors as the nation's out-
standing rehabilitant of the year.
This recognition, citing the suc-
cess of transforming many handi-
capped persons from welfare re-
cipients to productive citizens, has
been somewhat overwhelming for
my wife, Joy, and me, but there is
more involved here than quickly
meets the eye. While the success
stories are being published and
glorified, we are tormented by the
fate of other students whom we
trained just as completely and
loved just as dearly, but who have
not yet achieved this final success,
which involved the securing of a
position of productivity and stature
Era, October 1970 31
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4. Make a Treat with Wheat - Hazel Richards
5. Singing with Joy - Joy Baker (children's songs)
6. Great Leaders of the Book of Mormon ■ Paul Cheesman. 4-color portraits.
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13. ' Mormonism & the Negro • John J. Stewart
14. Eternal Gift ■ John J. Stewart
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4663 Rainbow Dr. Address
Salt Lake City,
Utah 84107 City
in the community. A handicapping
circumstance that isolates a per-
son from a productive life also
drops him in some people's eyes
to a second-rate status in the com-
munity. A first-rate community
image can be obtained through
work and self-respect. Pity and
overprotectiveness by the commu-
nity greatly hinder the achieving of
The priceless breath of life that
transforms the rehabilitation con-
cept from mere idealism into val-
uable human action is as much a
person-to-person thing as is mouth-
to-mouth resuscitation, and in a
sense both achieve the same ob-
jective. They cause an incapaci-
tated person to live usefully again.
In the classroom and in coun-
seling settings, training agencies
can help a person who is handi-
capped to acquire new vocational
"The Spoken Word" from Temple
Square, presented over KSL and
the Columbia Broadcasting System
July 19, 1970. ©1970.
"Endure ... for days of happiness"
By Richard L. Evans
There is a short sentence from Vergil that says: "Endure, and keep
yourselves for days of happiness." 1 There are times when we feel
that we can't endure — that we can't face what's ahead of us;
that we can't live with the disappointments, the problems; that we
can't carry the heavy load. But these times come and go, as our
strength and courage and circumstances run in cycles — from high to
low to high — and in the low times we have to endure; we have to
hold on until the shadows brighten, until the load lifts. "No one could
endure adversity," said Seneca, "if, while it continued, it kept the
same violence that its first blows had. . . ." 2 People often issue ultima-
tums. They say they can't or won't stand this or that— not another min-
ute. "I'm leaving it all. I want out." Such times could be likened to a
circuit breaker or a fuse that blows when overloaded. We do wonder if
we can take it at times, but there are built-in safety factors, and we
find that the human soul — the spirit, the body, the mind of man — are
resilient. There is more built-in strength in all of us than we sometimes
suppose. And what once we said we couldn't do or couldn't live with
or couldn't carry, we find ourselves somehow doing and enduring, as
time, reappraisal, readjustment, and sometimes sheer necessity modify
our sense of values and our attitudes, and we find strength and en-
durance and hidden resources within ourselves. "Life is real! Life
is earnest!" 3 as the poet put it, and facing facts, adjusting to life isn't
always easy. But before we give up, we should most seriously consider
what we are giving up, and what we are going to. "The frying pan to
the fire" is an old phrase that has much meaning. Well, thus endeth
the lesson — to pause, to reappraise, to take time for hope, for faith,
and for strength to return, remembering, as Solon said it: "If all men
were to bring their miseries together in one place, most would be glad
to take . . . home again . . . each his own." 4 "Endure, and keep your-
selves for days of happiness."
'Vergil, Aeneid, Bk. i.
2 Seneca, Moral Essays: On Tranquility of Mind.
3 Longfellow, A Psalm of Life, stanza 2.
♦Solon (638-558 B.C.), Athenian lawgiver.
skills that fit his remaining abili-
ties. They can also help restore his
confidence and self-image; but one
day, when maximum physical and
vocational restorations have been
achieved, the handicapped indi-
vidual must return to his family,
friends, and neighbors. If they
thoughtlessly reject his services
and choose to pity him, two very
undesirable things occur: He
quickly comes to know the frus-
trating existence of capability with-
out opportunity, with its disap-
pointments, heartbreak, and waste
of human life; and a dollar loss is
involved in the form of higher
taxes and additional welfare costs.
The National Citizens Advisory
Committee on Vocational Rehabili-
tation has expressed the overall
situation in this statement: "We are
a human nation and we are a na-
tion of businessmen: yet we vio-
late the principles of humanity
and business when we continue to
permit ever increasing numbers of
Americans to languish in the sha-
dow of a serious handicap which
could be mastered. Both the con-
science and the purse suffer when
men and women who could be self-
reliant and productive are con-
signed to futility and dependency."
For Joy and me it was a parttcu-
ly momentous day when Randy,
at 18 years, entered the school
that he and his handicapped con-
dition inspired. After he is grad-
uated, he will have the training
with which many have been able
to achieve vocational success.
When he offers his vocational tal-
ents and skills to his community,
he will be hoping for a future life
of service, income, independence,
and self-respect. Will Randy be-
one of the successful ones? Our
prayers will be with him, but his
final vocational future, as with all
handicapped persons, is in the
hands of his fellow community
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The LDS Scene
Ogden Temple Cornerstone Is Laid
President Joseph Fielding Smith presided at the
recent laying of the cornerstone for the new Ogden Temple.
An estimated 6,000 northern-Utah Saints were
in attendance. The all-concrete structure will be
completed by fall of 1971.
All-Church Softball Champions
Another season of all-Church softball is over,
and with the settling of the dust the following champions
emerged victorious in all-Church softball tournament
play in Salt Lake City: Bountiful (Utah) Thirtieth
Ward, senior fast pitch; Whittier (California) Ward, junior fast
pitch; Marietta (Georgia) Ward, senior slow pitch;
Merced (California) Second Ward, junior slow pitch.
Mexico Mission Lamanite Youth Conference Held
The beautiful city of Guadalajara, Mexico, was the
scene of a four-day conference attended by some 250
Latter-day Saint Lamanite youth. Competition in
sports events, a dance, and a testimony meeting were
highlights of the conference.
All-Church Golf Tournament
Winners in the annual all-Church golf tournament,
held this year at the Alpine Country Club
in Utah County and at the Wasatch State Park near
Heber, Utah, were Henry Kershaw of the
Phoenix (Arizona) 18th Ward in the veterans' divison,
Tom Jensen of the Fremont (California) Second Ward in the
senior division, and John Fought of the Gabriel Park
(Oregon) Ward in the junior division. Latter-day
Saint golfer Billy Casper conducted exhibitions that
drew hundreds of sports fans.
"The Spoken Word" from
Temple Square, presented
over KSL and the Colum-
bia Broadcasting System
une 14, 1970. ©1970.
It isn't fair to expect perfection
By Richard L. Evans
\ A / e nve m a world of imperfection, and
\/\ /certainly there are no perfect people. And
V Vone of the surest ways to break up a home,
to break up a marriage, to break up a friendship, a
business, or any relationship in life, is to overempha-
size faultfinding. People in love overlook faults. In
disillusionment they overemphasize faults. "Faults
are thick," said James Howell, "where love is thin."'
It isn't fair to expect perfection in other people when
we can't give it ourselves. It is fair, however, to expect
improvement, to expect repentance. It isn't good
enough to be just as good today as we were yester-
day. Life is for learning. We ought to know more, to
improve in our performance and be better each
day. But in the meantime, one of the lessons of life
is learning what to overlook— and when. There is
a time for all things. There is a time when people
can be corrected in kindness, and there are times of
heat or anger or embarrassment when correction
reacts the wrong way. And trying to ridicule people
into improving their performance also often reacts
the wrong way. Sarcasm is a sharp tool, but often
cuts too deeply and leaves scars that are hard to heal.
"The real art of conversation is not only to say the
right thing in the right place," said a thoughtful ob-
server, "but to leave unsaid the wrong thing at the
tempting moment." 2 We shouldn't reconcile our-
selves to letting all imperfections persist, all faults
go uncorrected. But we need to choose the time, the
place, the manner, and the method in focusing on
faults, remembering always that it is unreasonable to
expect perfection of others when we cannot give it
ourselves. In marriage, in the home, at work, in public
life, and in all relationships, one fact we must keep
uppermost in mind is that we are all of us imperfect
"Should you feel inclined to censure
Faults you may in others view,
Ask your own heart, ere you venture,
If that has not failings, too." 3
'lames Howell, Proverbs: 8rit.-Eng., p. 2.
2 Dorothy Nevill, British novelist.
i Hymns, No. 1 59.
Era, October 1970 35
By William E. Berrett
Illustrated by Phyllis Luch
• A few months ago I sat at the
bedside of one of my closest friends,
who was dying of cancer. His suf-
fering was intense, and I deeply
grieved for him. Since then, he has
I was reminded on that occasion
of an incident told by Dr. Joseph
Sizoo. He stood at the bedside of
a little infant girl who was suffer-
ing so intensely that her parents
were frantic. Doctor Sizoo relates,
"I suggested to the mother and
father that we pray, asking God to
give wisdom to the surgeon, and
that we commend their only child
to the keeping of a God whose
ways, though past finding out, are
ways of love. Then the mother
turned to me sharply and said, 'You
can't pray here to your God who
lets a little child like this suffer. I
wouldn't treat a dog that way.' '
(Make Life Worth Living, p. 112.)
Daily parents receive messages
from the Defense Department of
the United States that begin, "We
regret to inform you," and a whole
family is stricken because a boy
has been killed on the field of
battle. Many calamities of nature
sweep over the earth. It has only
been a few months since an earth-
quake struck and snuffed out lives.
And recently two submarines, each
carrying a crew of some 40 to 60
men, sank to the bottom of the
There is much suffering and
much evil in the world, and many
people ask, "Where is God, that he
permits wars to go on, that he
allows people to lie at death's door
with disease, that he would permit
a student in a big southern uni-
versity to take a couple of rifles and
get up on a high tower and shoot
down the students as they pass
from one building to the other? Is
there a God? If there is, does he
care? Is he powerless to do any-
thing about it?" These are the
questions that sooner or later many
ask themselves in this life. Much
depends upon the answers. I be-
lieve that members of The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
have an answer.
One of the difficulties many
people have in understanding the
Dr. William E. Berrett, administrator of seminaries and institutes of religion
for the Church, has devoted much of his life and law training to the promo-
tion of religious education. He is the author of numerous books and articles
on the history and doctrines of the Church.
deny him the power to bring into
effect new organizations of worlds
and of galaxies, new kingdoms in
which individuals achieve immor-
tality with all the glory that accom-
panies such kingdoms. And when
we talk about him being ever pres-
ago in Hawaii. Lightning some-
times strikes men working in fields.
Snowstorms sometimes maroon
people in their homes and automo-
biles and may freeze them to death
if they are not properly clothed and
sheltered to withstand the cold.
problem of evil lies in their mis-
understanding of the nature of God
and his relationship to man. They
use terms indicating that he is
omnipotent, that he can do any-
thing; that he is omniscient, that
he knows everything; that he is
omnipresent, that he is everywhere.
These are terms that Christians over
the years have used to describe
God. But as one of our great
writers, the late President B. H.
Roberts, pointed out some years
ago, God is not all powerful in a
sense that he could have a valley
without a hill. Or, as one mission-
ary said, "He cannot make a ten-
year-old colt in a minute." God
works in accordance to laws. He
cannot make individuals great with-
out their help. He doesn't have
that power. That power lies within
the individual. If in a matter of
moments he could pour into our
lives all the learning of all the ages,
how simple learning would be, but,
perhaps, how useless it would be.
God works within the framework of
We would not deny our Heavenly
Father progress. We would not
ent, in our understanding we mean Diseases sometimes rack people's
only in spirit, only in influence is he bodies, leaving them in pain or
ever present; not in person, for in crippled for life.
person he is confined to space and
time with the accompanying limita-
tions. And as we come to under-
stand God and the laws by which
he operates, we also come to under-
stand that he is not responsible for
There are two fundamental kinds
of evil in the world that bring pain
and suffering to mankind. One
kind arises from man's relationship
to natural law. Through the work-
ing of natural law, an earthquake
may occur in mid-ocean and tidal
waves for thousands of miles will
strike against the shores of distant
lands, bringing death and destruc-
This happened some years
These natural occurrences are
sometimes termed evils, yet from
our experience with these natural
laws, we learn great lessons. When
the boll weavil struck the U.S. cot-
ton crops, it looked for a time as
if the cotton industry were at an
end in America. But the very evil
itself caused men in universities
and laboratories to devise means to
»«. i» '
« ** •»„
% fjft have the world other than it is? If
»V£V you were to fashion a world, and
that is a possibility within our
philosophy, what kind of world
would it be? Would you create a
planet on which people would
dwell that was not governed by
law? Remember, that which is not
governed by law is not dependable,
combat the boll weavil, with the If the sun rose one day and then
result that cotton now flourishes forgot to come up for a month or
so, if two and two did not always
make four, what kind of world
would it be?
Progress is possible only in a
world of law— a world of law so de-
pendable that scientists can predict
the eclipse of a star or how long it
will take a rocket to travel to the
All of the progress of the
even more than it did before. The
tidal waves that struck Hawaii
caused men to organize means to
give warnings hours before such
tidal waves could strike, and the
last tidal wave that struck Hawaii
took not a single life.
Thus we learn great lessons with-
out which progress would be
possible. I grant that the experience human race is possible because this
learned from the forces of nature
is not of much value in this life if
the person is killed by those forces.
But if this life were the only life we
were to live, there would be no
answer to the problem of evil.
Another type of evil that we find
is the evil that comes from human
beings in their treatment of other
human beings. In the story of
is a world of law. If you were God,
would you interfere with it? Would
you stop the wind from blowing
because it might inconvenience
some? Would you have the rain
quit just because you wanted to go
on a picnic? Sometimes we would
like God to interfere with the
weather or the forces of nature
about us, but if he were continually
Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe, altering the forces of nature, he
Crusoe didn't know the word fear
on his little island until he found
the footprints of a man. Much of
the fear, much of the pain, much
of the sorrow of today comes from
.might destroy the very purpose of
God himself has indicated that
if he does not work in accordance
to the laws, he is not God. The
the cruelty of man. But would you Book of Mormon prophets taught
the law of opposites, that you could
not know the sweet if you did not
taste the bitter, you could not ap-
preciate that which is good if you
did not see evil, you could not
know the joy of good health if you
did not know the pain of sickness,
and you could not know the joys of
eternal life if you did not know the
pain of death. God in his good-
ness and wisdom has brought us
into a world where we may learn.
It's amazing how many people
throughout the world have come to
think of calamities as reflecting the
will of God. There are even those
who suppose that it is God's will
that there arc wars in the world.
Nothing could be further from the
truth. The heavens must weep over
man's inhumanity to man. The
Savior, when he was upon the earth
in the flesh, taught us these things
In the parable of the wheat and
the tares, he told how the servants
of the owner of the vineyard went
out and sowed wheat in the fields.
When the wheat came up, weeds
or tares grew up among it, and the
servant said to the master, "Wilt
thou then that we go out and gather
them up?" The master said, "Nay;
lest while ye gather up the tares, ye
root up also the wheat with them.
Let both grow together until the
harvest: and in the time of harvest
I will say to the reapers, Gather ye
together first the tares, and bind
them in bundles to burn them: but
gather the wheat into my barn."
(Matt. 13:28-30.) No, the person
struck by lightning in the field was
not so struck because God was de-
stroying someone who was wicked.
It was not God's will that the man
be struck by lightning, God does
not immediately strike down the
wicked, but he allows the wicked
and the righteous to live together.
He allows the rain to fall on the
just and the unjust, that there might
be righteous judgment on the day
On one occasion questioners re-
lated to Jesus how 18 men were
eating their lunch beneath the walls
of the tower of Salom when the
tower fell and crushed them. Their
question was, in effect, "Were
these more wicked than the other
people of the city?" And Jesus said,
"I tell you, Nay: but, except ye
repent, ye shall all likewise perish."
(Luke 13:5.) And they came to
him on another occasion and said
men were meeting on the outskirts
of the temple and that Roman
soldiers, thinking they were foment-
ing a rebellion, fell upon them and
slew them. And Jesus said, "Sup-
pose ye that these Galilaeans were
sinners above all the Galilaeans,
because they suffered such things?
I tell you, Nay. . . ." (Luke 13:2-3.)
During World War II, there
were some in Zion who promised
our boys as they marched away to
war that if they would keep the
commandments of God, they would
not be destroyed and would safely
return to their homes. The First
Presidency of the Church, in a
special meeting held in the assem-
bly room of the Salt Lake Temple,
gave an important message bearing
upon this problem. President David
O. McKay, counselor in the First
Presidency, read the message to the
Church, in which the First Presi-
dency made it clear that in the
case of war, it is not only the
wicked who are killed; the righteous
as well as the wicked may stand in
the way of the shrapnel or the
bullet and may thus be killed. We
must not judge that those who are
slain on the fields of battle are only
those who have broken the com-
mandments of God.
We ought to read again and
again Chapter 60 of Alma, wherein
a letter is written by a great gen-
eral of this continent, the first
Moroni, to Governor Pahoran. In
answer to a letter he had received
in which the people had supposed
certain things that were not true,
Moroni said, "Do ye suppose that,
because so many of your brethren
have been killed it is because of
their wickedness? I say unto you, if
ye have supposed this ye have sup-
posed in vain; for I say unto you,
there are many who have fallen by
the sword; and behold it is to your
"For the Lord suffereth the
righteous to be slain that his justice
and judgment may come upon the
"The Spoken Word" from Tem-
ple Square, presented over KSL
and the Columbia Broadcasting
System, July 5, 1970. ©1970.
Those who keep things going
By Richard L. Evans
A letter from a friend has turned our thoughts to a citation from a
/-\ current source: "To me there is an aura of grandeur about the
/ V dull routine of maintenance. ... It is easier to build than to
maintain. Even a lethargic or debilitated population can be galvanized
for awhile to achieve something impressive, but the energy that goes
into maintenance of things in good repair day in and day out is the
energy of true vigor." 1 Applying this to "our present problems," the
letter continues, "it is easier to win our freedom, build a nation and
subdue a continent, than it is now to maintain that freedom, and live
peaceably with ourselves. ... It is easier to win the hand of a lovely
girl than to do the less glamorous task of keeping [that lovely relation-
ship alive]." 2 It may be easier to jump into a new marriage than to
keep an old one sweet and sacred, as evidenced by increasing divorce.
"It is easier to win new converts to a cause than it is to keep them in
continued service. . . ." 2 It may be easier to begin new projects than to
finish good ones already begun. And certainly it is easier to criticize
and destroy than to cherish and preserve. Criticism is always easier
than creation or preservation. Suddenly turning to something that
seems new or suddenly tossing away something we have tired of may
seem much easier— when maintaining and preserving require patience,
discipline, duty. But there is a quiet kind of heroism in those who keep
things going, who keep contracts, who keep commitments, who provide
employment; who rear and teach and care for children; who maintain
the sanctity of home and marriage; who live and uphold the law, and
who contribute to the freedom, peace, and protection of community and
country and to the preservation of all that is most precious. Rushing
into what is new is sometimes exciting. But preserving what is good
is an absolute essential— and he who keeps good things going is an
often unheralded hero that we are deeply indebted to.
'Eric Hoffer, "The Temper of Our Times."
2 Based on a letter from Clifton C. M. Kerr.
Era, October 1970 39
wicked. . . ." (Al. 60:12-13.) Here
was a prophet and a general
who was also a realist. He knew
what was happening. But then
he notes an important fact: ". . . ye
need not suppose that the righteous
are lost because they are slain; but
behold, they do enter into the rest
of the Lord their God." ( Al. 60:13. )
I have come to pity those in this
world who do not know that they
will live again. How despair must
ride their hearts when a loved one
dies! What a joy is our understand-
ing that the righteous who die in
this world of evil are received up
in glory. We weep for those who
have no hope of glory.
Would any of us have God take
away the laws that cause bullets
to be propelled or tidal waves to be
formed? A world without fixed
laws would become meaningless.
Or would we take away the free
agency of the individual? Would
we have God prevent men from
making war on one another?
Satan's plan would have pre-
vented man from doing evil, but his
plan permitted no personal growth.
God determined not to take away
man's free agency. But society may
take it away. We don't allow one
another freedom to do anything we
please— we have laws that circum-
scribe our actions. But the Lord
allows us to do as we please; he
will not stop us if we have a heart
that impels us to evil. I suppose
that the time when God must have
been most tempted to interfere
with man's free agency was when
his Son was nailed to a cross and
in agony cried out, "My God, my
God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
But even then God withheld the
exercise of his power, for if God
were to interfere every time man
was about to do evil, God would be
responsible for the acts of all men,
and there could be no judgment.
In the Book of Mormon we find
an account that is relevant to this
matter of judgment. The prophet
Alma, with Amulek, his missionary
companion, converted a number of
people in a certain area. But the
great majority of the people who
had not been converted seized the
converts, tied them to stakes, put
brush around them, and set fire to
the brush. They bound Alma and
Amulek and brought them forward
to witness the burning of the con-
verts. Amulek cried out to Alma,
"How can we witness this awful
scene? Therefore let us stretch
forth our hands, and exercise the
power of God which is in us, and
save them from the flames.
"But Alma said unto him: The
Spirit constraineth me that I must
not stretch forth mine hand. . . ."
Alma didn't doubt the power of
God to free him or the converts. He
said, ". . . the Lord receiveth them
up unto himself, in glory; and he
doth suffer that they may do this
thing, or that the people may do
this thing unto them, according to
the hardness of their hearts, that
the judgments which he shall exer-
cise upon them in his wrath may be
just; and the blood of the innocent
shall stand as a witness against
them, yea, and cry mightily against
them at the last day." (Al. 14:10-
How can you render judgment
on a man if you constantly inter-
fere with his actions? There would
not be a day of justice at judgment.
Perhaps we need to review the
events and catch, the spirit of the
121st and 122nd sections of the
Doctrine and Covenants. The
Prophet Joseph and others were in
prison in Liberty Jail, Missouri,
confined in a room about 14 by 15
On each side there was only
one slit of a window about two
inches wide. It was cold, and there
was never a fire. They could not
sleep at night, but kept moving
about to keep from freezing to
death. They could get a little sleep
in the middle of the day when two
or three ragged blankets were
thrown in to them. They ate filthy
food. But worse than anything else,
they heard tales from the guards
about the plundering of their
homes, destroying of their cattle,
ravaging of their wives. Finally
Joseph Smith cried out, "O, God,
where art thou? And where is the
pavilion that covereth thy hiding
place? How long shall thy hand
be stayed, and thine eye, yea thy
pure eye, behold from the eternal
heavens the wrongs of thy people.
. . ." (D&C 121:1-2.)
Sometimes in our agony of spirit
we feel like crying out to God, "O,
God, where art thou? Must we en-
dure these sufferings?" The Prophet
received the answer of the Lord:
"My son, peace be unto thy soul;
thine adversity and thine afflic-
tions shall be but a small mo-
ment. . . . Thou art not yet as
Job; thy friends do not contend
against thee " (D&C 121:7, 10.)
Then the Lord reminded Joseph
that "the Son of man hath de-
scended below them all. Art thou
greater than he?" (D&C 122:8.)
". . . Know then, my son, that all
these things shall give thee experi-
ence, and shall be for thy good."
(D&C 122:7.) In this message we
find a remarkable philosophy. From
that day on, the Prophet Joseph
never complained again. Yes, there
is much misery in the world. But
even as Paul the apostle, we need
to say, "If it were not for our hope
in Christ we would be of all men
most miserable." (See 1 Cor.
The gospel provides us with a
philosophy that enables us to meet
all that life can bring, both good
and evil, with an assurance that all
these things will give us experience
that will be for our good. What a
blessed philosophy— what wonder-
ful truth! O
The LDSSA Conference
The Laurelife Conference
■■■ : ^ ■ :.-
Linda Stap/ey from Arizona
was official chorister for gen-
President Harold B. Lee addressed delegates in a special
meeting, counseling leaders with their responsibilities of
example on campuses the world over.
Elder Richard L. Evans gives the keynote address in Pardoe
Theater at Brigham Young University, convention site.
Executive officers of LDSSA stand with Pur-
suit of Excellence Award winners: top, left to
right, Dr. Frank Bradshaw, Elaine A. Cannon,
Dr. J. Marvin Higbee, Bishop Sterling Work-
man; front, Dr. Homer R. Warner, Elder
Marion D. Hanks, Dr. Alexander Schreiner.
• England, Germany, Canada,
Hawaii, and continental United
States from Boston to California
were represented in the four-day
conference of the Student Asso-
ciation of The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints. The
conference was held on the Brig-
ham Young University campus,
under the direction of Elder
Marion D. Hanks, Assistant to
the Council of the Twelve and
managing director of the asso-
The theme of the event was
read during the opening session
by Richard Boyer, Student Asso-
ciation president at the Univer-
sity of Utah: "I pray not that
thou shouldest take them out of
the world, but that thou should-
est keep them from the evil."
In response to the theme,
Elder Hanks counseled the 500
college and university student
delegates to "be not conformed
to this world: but be ye trans-
formed by the renewing, of your
mind, that ye may prove what
is that good, and acceptable, and
perfect, will of God." (Rom.
12 :2.) And from this point for-
ward the conference delegates
met in discussion groups, chatted
over lunch, and listened to wise,
spiritual public and Church
leaders on matters relevant to
being in the world but not of it."
Delegates were largely upper
classmen and graduate students
from noted institutions of higher
learning and from junior col-
leges and some trade and techni-
cal schools. Holding their annual
conventions in conjunction with
the conference were Lambda
Delta Sigma and Sigma Gamma
Chi, collegiate sorority and fra-
ternity sponsored by the Church.
During the conference new
officers of the groups were an-
nounced and sustained. Called
by the First Presidency to lead
Sigma Gamma Chi was John
Preston Creer, with Bruce
Bowen, Louis Callister, Jr.,
Frank Day, Rolfe Kerr, and
Ryck Luthi as assisting officers.
Sterling Workman is executive
Nedra M. Warner is president
of Lambda Delta Sigma, assisted
by Diane Dunford, Barbara
Winder, Ruth Eichers, and
Marie Mills. Elaine Cannon is
international adviser. The group
is on 70 campuses, with nearly
4,000 girls having been initiated
in the past three years.
The Student Association's or-
ganizational structure provides
for a stake president to be named
priesthood leader by the First
Presidency for a certain region,
area, or campus. He in turn will
call a student president, two
vice-presidents., and a secretary
to serve as leaders of the student
council of the Student Associa-
tion. Representatives from the
various agencies of the Church
relating to college-age students
will sit on the council.
Workings of this structure
were considered in depth. An in-
teresting exchange period was
conducted with members of
the Church's Youth Correlation
Committee. Elder Hanks fielded
the student comments submitted
to W. Jay Eldredge, general
superintendent of YMMIA ;
Florence S. Jacobsen, general
president of YWMIA ; Dr. Alma
Burton of the Department of
Seminaries and Institutes; and
Lynn S. Richards of the Sunday
School general superintendency.
Presiding Bishop John H. Van-
denberg was also in attendance
Elder Richard L. Evans, chair-
man of Youth Correlation, spoke
to the assembled delegates about
becoming a part of the world in
the sense that one cannot influ-
ence people unless there is con-
tact with them. "It is easier to
convert a friend than an enemy,"
he said. In speaking of success,
Elder Evans suggested that to
David Bly, convention reporter, is a 23-year-old student from Magrath,
Alberta, Canada, an Era of Youth contest winner, and editor of the Ricks
College Viking Scroll. He has served a mission to South Africa.
Era, October 1970 43
those who had received as much
as they, mediocrity was unac-
ceptable. "If it's mediocrity
you're seeking," he said, "you've
probably already achieved it."
President A. Theodore Tuttle
shared tender feelings and
strong convictions regarding
prayer ; he quoted President
Joseph Fielding Smith as say-
ing, "The philosophy and wis-
dom of the world mean nothing
save ' they conform to the re-
vealed word of God."
In summing up the role of the
Student Association, Elder Boyd
K. Packer of the Council of the
Twelve told the students that at
this time of campus unrest and
turmoil, "You stand there."
Bishop Victor L. Brown re-
minded youth of their special re-
lationship to God.
George Romney, U.S. Secre-
tary of Housing and Urban
Development and prominent
Latter-day Saint, responded to
a special Pursuit of Excellence
Award given to him by revealing
nuggets of wisdom he's learned
along the path of life. His can-
did, spiritual manner won him a
standing ovation. "America
needs Americans as great as its
principles," he counseled stu-
dents, suggesting a similar stan-
dard is true in the Church. Bruce
Skidmore of Lansing, Michigan,
presented the award.
Other recipients of the Pursuit
of Excellence Award were Dr.
Homer Warner, in the field of
medical science, and Dr. Alex-
ander Schreiner, chief Taber-
nacle organist, in the field of
musical arts. A special service
tribute was also paid to Elder
Hanks, in honor of his long ser-
vice to youth. "He that is great-
est among you shall be your
servant" (Matt. 23:11) was in-
scribed on his plaque. Presenting
these awards were Dr. Gilbert
Snow, graduate dental student
at Loyola University, Chicago ;
Ute Winkler, University of Gut-
enberg, Germany; and Phillip
Smith, University of Birming-
The rapid exchange between
student delegates, Student Asso-
ciation leaders — Dr. J. Marvin
Higbee, Dr. Frank Bradshaw,
and Sister Cannon — and the
guest speakers was an exciting
part of the workshop sessions.
Analyst for the seminar on
minorities, civil rights, and BYU
was Dr. Heber G. Wolsey, assis-
tant to the president of Brigham
Young University. The role of
the LDS woman was discussed
by Dr. Virginia F. Cutler, BYU
professor of home economics.
Helen Tingey, co-chairman of
the MIA's M Man and Gleaner
committee, led the discussion on
the Student Association and the
MIA. The Latter-day Saint
college student and the institute
of religion were discussed by Dr.
William E. Berrett, administra-
tor of seminaries and institutes.
A panel discussion on ques-
tions and answers in the aca-
demic world featured Elder
Hanks, moderator ; Dr. Neal
Maxwell, Dr. G. Homer Durham,
and Dr. Terry Warner.
Following a banquet Saturday
evening, the Pardoe Theater in
the Harris Fine Arts Center was
filled to capacity as over 500
people crowded in to hear Presi-
dent Harold B. Lee, first coun-
selor in the First Presidency.
"The best thing is to do the
right thing at the right time
without being told," said Presi-
dent Lee. "The next best thing
is to be told only once.
"I say unto you, young lead-
ers," he concluded, "carry back
with you a strong testimony of
the truthfulness of the gospel. It
is the strongest weapon a human
A western barbecue on the patio lawns of
BYU preceded an old-fashioned square dance.
Members of Church's Youth Correlation Com-
mittee form a panel to answer questions put
to them by delegates.
Chaperones and international officers of
Lambda Delta Sigma, Church sorority for
girls, are Diane Dunford, Colleen Workman,
Helen Bradshaw, Nedra M. Warner, Marie
Mills, Lynn Higbee, Ruth Eichers, and Bar-
being can have."
The final session of the con-
ference was held in the Taber-
nacle. The group attended the
Tabernacle Choir broadcast and
heard Dr. Schreiner speak and
play the organ in a special meet-
ing. The delegates then moved
to another room of the historic
Tabernacle for a testimony
John Preston Creer, newly called inter- George Romney is presented with Pursuit of
national president of Sigma Gamma Chi, Excellence Award by Bruce Skidmore, dele-
top, and Ute Winkler, delegate from Ger- gate from Lansing, Michigan, following an
many, caught in conference moods. exciting address by the Cabinet member.
Phillip Smith, delegate from England, takes
advantage of recreation break for a little
Delegates line up for tra-
ditional western barbecue.
Spectacu/ar mountains framing the campus
were thrilling to delegates from far places
who picnic on the lawn.
Lynn S. Richards, assistant general Sunday
School superintendent, and Bishop John H.
Vandenberg chat during a break at LDSSA
Era, October 1970 45
At Laurelife, skits on what it means
to be a 16- and 17-year-old girl were
featured each day (right).
By Sue Gardiner*
Laurels participated in discussion
groups (above) and workshops on
• Memories of Laurelife — the
Laurel Leadership Conference
held at Brigham Young Univer-
sity August 22 to 26 — are for
remembering for more than a
fleeting moment : they are a part
of each Laurel's everyday life.
Laurelife is music from folk
singing groups and seeing an
original "Laurelanny cow." It's
a fashion show featuring the
midi-look, and a jogging tour of
the fabulous "Y" campus.
Laurelife is spirituality — hav-
ing the sacrament blessed by
*Sue Gardiner, a Laurel, was co-
editor of a daily newspaper published
at the Laurelife Conference.
Laurels who formed launching com-
mittee are Carolyn Piatt, Becky
Child, Kris Theurer, Sue Hill, Becky
Laurelifeline newspaper staff: Debbie
Hanni, Janice Ensign, Janet Baum-
gartner, Sue Gardiner, Becky Olsen.
"Laurelife is giving, it's loving
It's sharing our talents with all
that we see.
Laurelife is caring, it's hoping
To be what a Laurel's expected
to be . . ."
Presiding Bishop John H. Van-
denberg and Bishop Robert L.
Simpson. It's hearing Elder
Marion D. Hanks tell of the mag-
nitude of a woman's influence.
It's a promise by President
Harold B. Lee that each girl
might use the strength of his
testimony until she develops one
of her own. It's knowing we
must be a light unto the world
through our example as children
of our Father in heaven.
Laurelife is the blossoming of
new friendships — the joy of
being with 2,500 girls who have
the same ideals as you do. It's
meeting in a small group for
family night each evening and
feeling the calmness and assur-
ance of family prayer. It's a
closeness felt as you see a shim-
mering teardrop in a roommate's
Laurelife is learning how to
make the most of dating experi-
ences, how to turn a house into
a home. It's preparation for a
career in counseling, nursing, or
the business world. It's sharing
creative talents in art, writing,
drama, and dance. It's partici-
pating with others in your resi-
dence hall in a talent show.
Laurelife is hearing inspira-
tional messages from Bishop
Robert L. Simpson and Elder
Boyd K. Packer and their wives.
It's meeting the sun for an early-
morning chorus or orchestra re-
hearsal. It's laughing at boy-girl
dating tactics in a clever skit.
It's a musical uplift from the
Mormon Youth Symphony and
Laurelife is a bow and arrow,
a golf club, a bucket of water,
as you relax during recreation
hours. Laurelife is a bashful
Miss Congeniality, a delicious
banquet with the gift of a
Laurelife charm, a concert by
the King Cousins.
Laurelife is the example of an
inspired launching committee —
five Laurel girls selected to plan
and conduct the conference — and
from fifty other Laurels in
charge of various phases of a
most successful five days. Lau-
relife is the gentle promptings
and wisdom of members of the
YWMIA general presidency and
general board. It's singing soft-
ly "I Am a Child of God," tin-
gling to the beautiful faith of a
17-year-old convert in testimony
meeting, the hope for an eternal
meeting expressed in the fare-
well song, "God Be With You
Till We Meet Again."
"Laurelife is growing, it's reap-
ing and sowing,
It's planting the seeds of a faith
that is strong.
Laurelife is doing, perfection
It's being too busy with right to
—"Laurelife," by Sue Hill
Era, October 1970 47
"Male Delivery" dating panel gives
Laurels hints on how to get along
"Love Mormon Style," one of the
clever general assembly productions.
Youth speaker in sacrament meeting
tells of joys of being a Latter-day
Workshop on fashions (far left) and
happy faces of Laurels from all over
United States and Canada (left).
Leisuretime activities found Laurels
planning family night surprises (far
left) and participating in sports ac-
| tivities (left).
' s*» < '
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" Eta, October t970 49
What Is the
By Elaine Cannon
• You are in the midst of young living. You are
probably a member of the Church — or about to
become one. We're interested in your viewpoint
about your world and the Church.
There are those who suggest that religion today
is irrelevant, that it has little to offer the search-
ing student, nothing much to say to the wayward,
worldly one, and no answers to meet contemporary
We wonder about such statements, in the face
of thrilling statistics of LDS church attendance,
participation in auxiliary programs, and temple
marriage. We wonder why there are any at all
who fall by the way and withdraw from the pur-
suit of growing in the gospel, when this church
offers such valid direction for good living. Per-
haps they aren't considering Mormonism thought-
What is your viewpoint ? What answers are you
getting from Church leaders, publications, man-
uals, classes, scriptures, experiences? We asked a
number of you, and are printing some of your
expressions. Let us hear from others of you. Let
us "teach one another" while yet we may.
Q. What is the Church saying to you?
A. Lori Duncan (Salt Lake City, college senior) :
The Church is telling me that in these times of
tremendous confusion, dissent, and moral decay,
there is a way to find true happiness ; that there
are eternal truths upon which we may base all of
our thoughts and actions; that there is a gospel
of principles that will withstand all tests of time
and relevancy ; that God is concerned with us, his
children, and has spoken to us in these latter days
that we may have meaningful, fulfilling lives.
There are those who, of course, would say our
church is no longer relevant, that God is now
dead and man is sophisticated enough academical-
ly now that he no longer must depend on the
church and God.
I marvel that anyone, no matter how keen, how
brilliant or well educated, can watch a child be
born, a flower bloom, a sun set, and not acknowl-
edge the existence of a living being whose powers
and knowledge so far exceed our own as to bring
us to our knees in grateful and awesome humility.
How can they, even without accepting his ex-
istence, deny the truthfulness of the principles of
the gospel, when they are literally surrounded
with examples of both kinds of lives all around
them, lives filled with peace from righteous living
as well as lives of misery and regret.
Q. What answers are we getting from Church
A. The leaders of the Church are living examples
to us of total commitment to the gospel and to
Christ-like living. They are special witnesses and
agents of the Lord, and we may look to them for
guidance in coping with our contemporary needs.
The Church has always confronted dissent and
criticism on certain issues. Its leaders are not
timid or apologetic for our beliefs, but rather face
the world with firm convictions. They stand amid
the confusion and reassure Church members of
the divine revelation being given.
Q. What answers are we getting from scriptures?
A. I find the scriptures to be a never-ending
source of strength and comfort. I used to have to
exert such will power to make myself read the
scriptures. They seemed so dull, so far removed
from my real world, until an institute teacher
challenged me to read 15 minutes each day. He
promised me that I would soon develop an appe-
tite for reading and would benefit from it more
and more each day. I tried it and, though it seemed
hard at first, he was so right ! Now I find I some-
times have to exert will power to stop reading the
scriptures after half an hour and turn to my other
That bit of reading sets the whole tone of my
day. As I go about work and school, passages come
to mind and change my entire perspective as I set
priorities and make decisions. They lend me that
extra ounce of strength it takes to give when it
would be easier to turn my back, to smile when I
would rather blow up, to channel my thoughts and
my conversation away from gossip or intolerance.
It helps me avoid what Elder Marion D. Hanks
calls "getting caught in the thick of thin things."
When I slip and neglect my scripture reading,
as I too often do, I feel much weaker and more
vulnerable to temptation. Though its impact is
subtle, often even subconscious, the difference it
makes in my life is profound.
I become more amazed each day at how appli-
cable the scriptures are to my life, my trials, and
my problems, and at how little human nature has
changed since Adam. We still fight the same bat-
tles, wrestle with the same temptatidns, receive
the same blessings and answers. Indeed, the scrip-
tures are relevant in my daily living.
Q. What answers are we getting from institute
Era, October 1970 51
A. While we are young, especially in college, we
are expected to assimilate a tremendous amount
of new knowledge. We are taught to think analyti-
cally and critically. We are exposed to several,
often incompatible, ways of thinking and are asked
to choose for ourselves our own philosophy. More
than ever before, I have felt a need for a balance
in my life, to be maturing spiritually as well as
physically and intellectually. I have felt a need
to fit this new knowledge into my spiritual con-
victions. Institute and seminary classes have
played a very significant role in this endeavor. It
has been an important link between gospel prin-
ciples and my real life. It has made the gospel
I remember many times in high school and col-
lege days when I have had serious doubts or ques-
tions for which I could not find satisfying answers.
In frustration I would confide in my seminary or
institute teacher, knowing that he was sincerely
concerned and that he advised with authority
because his life was exemplary of how I should
live. Almost every day of my life I am confronted
with little decisions and situations that call to
my mind specific lessons and pieces of advice I
learned from good seminary and institute teachers
along the way.
Q. What answers do you get from your peers?
A. I find great strength in the examples of my
peers. To get up and walk out of an offensive
movie; to stand up and defend — even befriend —
a person whom everyone else ridicules ; to be the
only one of the crowd to say no to drinking, to
dishonest though seemingly harmless pranks, or to
breaking the Sabbath day — all of these actions
take a person of strong character. Such people
among my friends have given immeasurable cour-
age to others.
I remember a night when some friends and I
sneaked into a movie through the exit without
paying. We were laughing and feeling smart and
smug about it when, without a word, one of my
friends got up and left the theater. Suddenly,
being dishonest didn't seem funny to us anymore.
One by one, each of us walked out, each secretly
wishing we had had as much courage.
Probably the most well-respected boy I know is
a young man who makes friends with all kinds of
people, regardless of their beliefs or status. He is
loved among church members, fraternity mem-
bers, and classmates. He is always the life of the
party and a fun date, yet he has never lowered
his high standards in any way to win a friend or
to get a laugh. He gravitates naturally toward
positions of leadership, because his peers, even
the weakest ones, sense his strength of character.
He has changed the lives of many persons.
Q. Does the Church help you in daily life?
A. Melody Williams (15-year-old New York FHA
For most of my life I lived in a community that
was all Mormon. Then we moved to a place where
we were the only Mormons in the school, and many
things that happened tested my faith in my re-
ligion. Our branch was small, and most of the.
members were converts. The testimonies of the
converts were so strong that they helped build my
testimony, and consequently I became more in-
volved in the Church.
I feel the Church has set an excellent example
for young people. The Era of Youth is one big
help. It is especially for young people and their
problems. Also, the Church has given us a lot of
help on drugs, sex, and many important issues
that face the youth of today. Our Church teachers
have helped us to learn facts about such problems.
But most important of all is the one person we
can always go to with our problems : our Father in
heaven. I know that he has helped me make many
important decisions. He has also helped my par-
ents to teach me the true and the right way. The
Church has taught me how to be closer to him.
Thus, I feel that the Church has thousands of ideas
to offer the searching students if only they will
Q. Is the Church important in your life?
A. Bryant McOmber (law student from Palo Alto,
At its inception in 1869, the YWMIA was given
the title of Retrenchment Society, its basic pur-
pose being to shield the youth of Zion from world-
ly influences. Subsequently this name was
discarded and today we call it the Mutual Improve-
ment Association, whose motto is "the glory of
God is intelligence."
To me this change represents wisdom. In the
parable of the pieces of silver, the "retrenchment"
servant, upon receiving his piece of silver, hid it
away, reasoning that if it could be removed from
a world of uncertainty and challenge, it would
still be there at the master's return. It was. But
while the "improvement" servants took their allot-
ments out into the world and increased them sev-
eral times and thus received praise and greater
responsibilities, the "retrenchment" servant was
scolded and his piece of silver was taken.
The Church, with its positive powers, has been
restored. Its relevance today is directly propor-
tional to our success in utilizing it as a means of
improvement instead of retrenchment. A great
source of satisfaction and development to me is
the association with other students and young pro-
fessional people in the ward I attend who are con-
cerned with current religious and social problems.
The Sunday School classroom serves as a forum
for stimulating discussions, where the challenge
is to internalize and apply Christ's principles,
such as how to love our neighbors. It is this con-
tinual effort that makes the gospel meaningful in
a contemporary setting and provides substance for
the growth of my testimony.
Q. Do you feel the gospel is relevant in today's
A. Tom Schwartz (graduate student and journal-
ist from Wisconsin) :
It is hard to know where to start a statement
concerning the relevance of the gospel in my life.
When I look at the principles that motivate my
life, the values and ideals that give purpose and
direction to my life, I find that they can all be
traced back to the gospel of Jesus Christ. The in-
fluence of the gospel on my life is difficult to
measure simply because it is so pervasive. It has
reached every area of my life ; and every decision
I make, every action, is enriched and deepened by
the fact of my membership in the Church.
I have found that some of those things that I
have been taught to value are now coming to be
be valued by the secular world. And I am a bit
amused by the tendency of the secular world to
act as if it has discovered something new. Long
before the secular student was introduced to the
socratic notion that knowledge is virtue, I was
taught that the glory of God is intelligence. I was
taught to read good books and to develop my tal-
ents. I find myself today committed to the educa-
tive process. Because I am a Mormon, I am proud
to be a student. And long before the secular stu-
dent was infected with a social consciousness, I
was taught that true religion concerns itself with
the victims of society: the poor, the oppressed,
and those who are discriminated against. Now I
fight for social equality and against envy, hatred,
These values point out the secular relevance of
the gospel. There is another relevance, however —
a deeper relevance, and one that leaves a lump in
my throat and fills the furthest recesses of my
heart with humility. That is the gift of Jesus
Christ. This is my memory of that gift.
Jesus knew me, for I was his younger brother.
He knew me well. He knew that I was weak, slow
to do good. He knew that I would make mistakes,
that I would take more than I would give. And
he knew that I would be too slow to repay my debt.
Yet he loved me. He loved me so well that he
assumed responsibility for my debt and cancelled
that debt with his blood. That is the relevance of
the gospel to my life. O
Era, October 1970 53
What Do You Read?
Note : Nancy Twitty, reporting for the
Era of Youth, questions her peers on
their reading tastes and habits. Par-
ticipating in the discussion are :
Mel Pyne, 18, who has been active in
football, basketball, and track, and
has been a seminary officer.
Rick Hymas, 18, a 1970 high school
graduate who wants to go on to law
Julie Butler, 18, a debater who plans
to be a junior high school English
Lowell Anderson, 18, a debater and
all-state football player who wants to
be a doctor.
Richard Hoopes, 19, who is majoring
in business economics and played on
the 1969 all-Church basketball team.
Kathy Pope, 18, active in student body
offices, who wants to teach high
Lora Bodine, 16, a high school junior
who loves drama and plans to teach
• "Reading serves for delight,
for ornament, for ability. The
crafty condemn it; the simple
admire it; the wise use it."
Little did Francis Bacon real-
ize when he made this classic
statement that he could well be
describing youth of the '70s. The
wise? Seven normal, "now-
generation" teenagers, all active
Church-doers. Wise because they
read, but wise more because they
use it. Sharp, crisp, aware, in-
telligent, directed. Here's what
they think about reading:
Is reading really as important
now as it used to be?
Julie: Yes, it definitely has its
place, although a lot of things
By Nancy Twitty
have moved in on it. Reading
is a good escape. It gives, you a
chance to relax and put your
mind on other things.
Lora : I learn insights 1 wouldn't
realize otherwise. When I read
about people, I learn how to
understand them better.
Mel: It's the unnoticed things
you learn through reading.
You find ways to express
yourself through reading the
expressions of others.
Lowell : Reading gives me a bet-
ter insight into what's going
on around me, as well as how
I can better myself. But I,
don't usually read unless I
have a purpose in doing it.
What do you read?
Kathy : I enjoy historical novels.
I identify with the characters
and wish I could be more like
them. I don't read enough
news articles or Church books,
and I wish I would spend more
time doing that.
Mel: I like scriptures because
that's what I need most, and
that's where the truth is.
Lora: Novels are my favorites. I
like them because they have
symbolism and make me think.
Richard: I like to read short
stories, because they usually
deal with a person's character.
I get excited when I see the
character of a person revealed.
Julie: My taste in reading is
wide. I like plays and sym-
bolic novels, but I think I
enjoy reading magazines and
newspapers more because
that's where you learn the
most about people.
Rick : I too like newspapers and
magazines the best, because
I've always been impressed
with people who know what's
going on. To be a success in
anything these days, we have
to be informed, and reading
novels just isn't enough. Sure,
we can gain an appreciation
for life, but that doesn't help
us know about today.
What about reading scriptures?
Richard: Often the stories we
read in the scriptures apply di-
rectly to our lives. When I
have a problem, I can always
look back to Alma and see
how he solved it. Or I can go
to the Book of Mormon and
find answers to many perti-
nent questions of the day.
Julie: My religion teacher told
us that if we would read the
scriptures and have a good
balance with our academic
studies, the scriptures would
help us just as a good team of
horses pulls the cart better.
Do you really have time to read?
Lora: You have to make time.
Richard : I like short stories be-
cause I can read them in just
a few minutes.
Rick: If I'm really interested in
a book, I find there's a lot of
Kathy: If I get to bed before
10 :30, 1 read 15 minutes in the
Book of Mormon, and on Sun-
day, I spend quite a bit of
Lowell: Since I work late, I find
it's convenient for me to read
the newspaper when I get
home, and now it's a habit.
How do books with bad language
Lora : Novels with bad language
really have an effect on me,
because words are put into my
mind that have never been
there before. What you read
has a strong effect.
Lowell: Your mind is always
storing something, and it will
store what you read, too.
Mel: It's not a matter of who
you are or where you come
from. If you read books that
convey bad thoughts, they will
be implanted somewhere in
your mind. Even if those
thoughts aren't cultivated,
they are still implanted.
Mel: Yes, we need to be se-
lective in choosing books or
magazines that emphasize
good. We don't need to look
for the bad, because chances
are we'll see it anyway.
Kathy: If the emphasis of a
book is on bad things, we
should stay away from it. We
should read things that em-
phasize the good instead. O
Era, October 1970 55
• Jason Call squinted through the dust as horse's
hooves rose and fell in the yellow dirt of the quiet
street. Eyes puffed slightly from the swirling cloud
and wrinkles lining hollow cheeks— both, in a way,
belied his 34 years.
Midway through the small town he pulled the
wagon up in front of a weather-scarred building.
Above the door, words in yellow built an arch on
warped boards: SCOTT CITY MERC.
Jason reached back and shook his son. "Ronnie.
The boy threw the tarpaulin aside, brown hair
rumpled. Troubled sleep shadowed his eyes and
hung to the gaunt face. They climbed from the wagon,
tethered the team to the hitching rail, and mounted
the steps to the open door of the small store.
The smell of oiled wooden floors and new leather
sent pangs of homesickness through Jason. How long
now? Two months since they'd been in a store? Since
the sights and smells and colors of newness?
Inside, a woman was hanging lace from a display
rack. "And what can I help you gentlemen with?"
"Good afternoon, ma'am. We need about sixty-
board feet of lumber."
"You're lucky. We just got a shipment yesterday."
Soft silk rustled, and a young girl moved through
the open door. Golden braids hung down her back,
and her dress was frilly, new, and expensive.
"Hello, Paula," the woman said. "And happy birth-
day. How does it feel to be 16?"
"Hello, Mrs. Martin. Just fine, thank you."
"I'll be with you in just a moment." She turned to
Jason. "Anything else?" Through the open door she
saw the wagon outside, a dust-covered plow tied to\
the back. "Going west?"
"That's right. Utah."
"Utah! I heard those Mormons who settled there'
had a pretty rough time." She eyed Jason closely. "By
the way, you wouldn't be one of them, would you?"
"Not yet, ma'am, but we're hoping to be in another
At the sound of the rustle of silk again, the woman
hurried to the open door. "Just a minute, Paula.
Paula!" But the girl, running across the street, didn't
Jason paid for his purchase, and he and Ronnie
began sliding lumber in the wagon from a stack against
The girl, Paula, suddenly appeared from across the
street, a step behind a husky man. His hair was
slightly gray at the temples, and in his face one could
see the signs of long-suppressed anger. He moved to
the porch steps and watched Jason untie the horses.
"They tell me you're a Mormon. Or almost, anyway."
Jason looked at him. "That's right. Any laws against
"No laws, but then they tell me there's quite a few
places with no such laws, places not exactly healthy
for Mormons." A half smile pulled at the man's thick
lips, and emotion moved strong in his voice. "Well,
Scott City is one such place. You're courting trouble
if you hang around here." Abruptly he turned and
Kenley Reese, a Sunday School teacher in the Utah State
University First Ward, has recently returned to college.
He and his wife have four children.
By Kenley Reese
Illustrated by Ralph Reynolds
Uncertainly, the girl turned. "Daddy! Aren't
you going to ask him? Daddy!" Perplexed, she
looked at Jason, then hurried after her father.
'Some reception," said the woman from the porch.
"Don't pay too much mind to Ross Sloan, though. He's
just a bit touchy when it comes to strangers, especially
those with plows. He owns a ranch outside of town,
and he's been fighting squatters for the past year
now." She raised one hand. "Well, good luck to you,
and if you're back this way, stop in again." She dis-
appeared inside the store as the wagon moved down
the dusty street.
Beyond the last house of Scott City, Jason swung
from the deep-rutted road and drove for a while in
.the open desert. The smell of sage, of chaparral, as
(iron tires smashed the brush, brought Francine into
his mind. How she'd loved the high desert— extremes
in temperature and clean crisp air, the endless view
and cleansing effect after a sudden rainstorm.
Jason closed his eyes, fighting the hurt that stabbed
at him, trying to force the picture away. He stopped
the team and climbed from the seat of the wagon.
They unloaded the lumber, took a hammer, a saw, and
some rusty nails from beneath the seat, and then
slowly began the task of forming a pine box.
The coffin built, they dug in silence. A buzzard
circled, high, loose, in the dead hot air, then drifted
on the wind toward the west.
They finished the grave just before sundown.
Tenderly, Jason removed a sheet-covered form from
the back of the wagon and laid it in the rough box and
nailed the lid. Then, with a worn rope, they lowered
the coffin into the hole. — ►
Era, October 1970 57
As clods banged loudly on top of the box, Ronnie
suddenly dropped the shovel and turned blindly to-
ward his father, flinging his arms around Jason's
stomach, violent sobs racking his body. Jason sat on
the pile of earth, holding Ronnie's head on his chest.
Resting now, his son's shaking body against his own,
he felt the restraining bonds that had held him for
two days slowly release their grip. The pain stirred
sharply in his chest, squeezing unbearably, moving
up slowly, constricting his throat, until finally the
Jason had no sense of time spent there, of rocking
gently back and forth, or of when his son's tears were
gone. He was first aware of his own tears spent.
Slowly he pushed Ronnie to arm's length and wiped
tears from his son's face with a rough but tender
hand. "Why don't you water the horses, son, and
start some supper. I'll finish this and then we'll eat."
The boy moved off, and Jason continued to cover
the grave. He made a crude marker from two board
ends and wrote, with a small piece of charcoal: Fran-
cine Call— In God We Trust. Then slowly he moved
to the fire that Ronnie had built.
Ronnie sat against one of the wheels, scratching in
the ground with a broken stick. "How come they all
treat us like dirt?"
Jason turned the meat. "You mean the man in town
"Yes. And back home, too. Why did they burn
our house and fields? Even when they knew that
mom was sick, that she shouldn't be going anywhere?
What difference should it make what we believe?"
"I can't rightly say, son. Partly human nature, I
guess. Things that people don't understand are things
they're most afraid of. And they strike out, not really
knowing what they're striking out at, but having to
react to the fear in some way."
Suddenly, with violence, Ronnie flung the stick
away. "Well, I hate them for it! I hope God makes
them all suffer! I hope—"
"Ronnie!" Jason reached out and touched his son.
"No, Ronnie! Remember what Christ said when he
hung on the cross?"
Ronnie nodded his head, ashamed as he stared at
the ground. "Yes, I remember. He was stronger than
I am, though."
"Yes, son. But that's what we're here for— to try to
become that strong. You know how it hurt your mother
when you thought like that of people."
After finishing the meal, they tiredly crawled into
bed. Jason lay awake till he heard the steady rhythm
of Ronnie's breathing; then he reached across and
pulled the blanket snug around his son. As his hand
brushed Ronnie's cheek, the old worry came again.
Could he, Jason, finish the job that he and Fran had
faced with their son? Could he somehow help Ronnie
over the hurdle of regaining a belief in men and
chucking aside the hate and mistrust— a hate and mis-
trust that shouldn't belong to any man, let alone a
12-year-old boy? It wouldn't be easy, not with people
like Ross Sloan persecuting them wherever they
turned. Yet somehow it would have to be done, or
the now-small canker would turn to a deadly disease.
The next morning when Jason and Ronnie rolled
out of bed, the sky was overcast, gray, and gloomy.
They were putting the last of their things in the wagon
when Paula Sloan rode into camp, wearing a rain Jason waved a hand toward the grave. "None, Mr.
slicker and with a bedroll tied to the back of her Sloan."
saddle. "Could I talk to you, mister—" Ross glanced at the fresh mound of earth and read
"Call, ma'am. Jason Call." the words scrawled on the board. As he turned back
"How much would you charge to take me with to Jason, his voice was softer, more deliberate. "Tell
you?" me, what's religion ever done for you? If your church
Jason shook his head. "I'm sorry. It's out of the is so right, how come you're here with a broken-down
question— you should know that. Besides, you know wagon and a hungry kid and a new-filled grave? You
nothing about us." must be crazy!"
"I know enough. You're Mormons, aren't you? And "I'm no different from you, Sloan. I loved my wife
you're going to Utah, aren't you?" as you must have loved yours. We cry tears when
"Yes, but what does that have to do with it?" we're hurt and bleed when we're cut, the same as you
She bit her lip. "I've got to— I've got to find my do. My children need love and food and shelter like
mother and sister. You see," she hurried to explain, anyone else's. We hope for a better world, and,
"my mother joined the Mormon church when I was like anyone else, we look for ways to make it like that."
13. Daddy said she was going to Utah and was taking "Well, you're crazy if you think that better world's
me and Penny with her— that's my sister. Penny was going to come through your way of thinking."
just a baby then, so daddy took me and we came out Lightning flashed and thunder rolled, much closer
here. And— and I've got to find them. I've got to!" now. Ross Sloan glanced up at the sky. "Take some
The sound of horses' hooves from down the wagon- advice, Call, and cross that river before it storms, or
rutted road startled them. "What are you doing here, you won't get across. And as sure as you're standing
Paula?" Ross Sloan called as he pulled up beside there, if you come back to Scott City, I'll have you
them. tarred and feathered." He turned, caught the reins
When Paula avoided his eyes, he turned to Jason. of Paula's bridle, and led her horse back toward town.
"What have you put her up to, mister? Wasn't one By early afternoon Jason and Ronnie were several
enough? You trying to ruin my whole family?" miles from Scott City. The rain was coming in tor-
"Mr. Call isn't ruining anyone's family, daddy. He rents now, and lightning flashed and thunder rolled
won't take me." as the wagon slid in the water-filled ruts. As they
"Well, that's a switch— Mormons turning down a turned slowly west, Jason saw movement back on the
chance to recruit a woman! Tell me, Call, how many road. Another turn south, and they paralleled the
wives have you got anyway?" swollen river, filled with logs and floating debris; and
Ronnie moved to stand by Jason. finally Jason could make out a rider a few hundred
"Huh, Call? How many?" yards back on the road.
Era, October 1970 59
A sudden streak of lightning knifed through the
sluicing rain, and an instantaneous thunderclap shat-
tered the air. Jason looked back but couldn't see the
rider. Suddenly, only yards away, he saw the horse
and rider racing blindly over the bank toward the
river. They plunged into the water, and the horse
came up alone.
Jason shoved the lines into Ronnie's hands and
sprang from the wagon, slipping, sliding down the
muddy incline, finally catching sight of a body in the
roily water. Jumping in, dodging limbs and knotted
stumps, he reached out his hand and grabbed for the
body. It was Paula Sloan.
Jason dragged her back to shore, fighting the cur-
rent. The girl was limp, almost lifeless, now. Fear
spurred him on as he carried her up the slippery bank.
She was still unconscious as he put her in the wagon,
climbed to the seat, and whipped the horses around,
back toward Scott City.
As he raced the team down the wide muddy street
toward the sign-DR. J. L. PREECE, M.D.-he turned
to his son. "Ronnie, you go sec if you can find Ross
Sloan. Ask someone. And hurry!" Then he picked up
the girl and shouldered the door open.
A thin man rose from a desk as he entered. "Put
her on the bed there."
"She fell from her horse into the river," Jason ex-
The man grunted softly and bent over her, checking
her eyes and pulse, then examined her head, where
blood was coloring the mud-filled hair.
As he was cleaning the wound, the door banged
open and Ross Sloan burst into the room, Ronnie
close behind him. Seeing Paula, Ross moved toward
the bed. "Is she all right? What happened?" He spun
suddenly on Jason, anger flashing in dark eyes. "She
was with you?"
"Following us. I saw her go in the river."
"She got a knock on the head, Ross," the doctor said
softly. "It doesn't look good. All we can do is wait
"There's nothing we can do?"
"Nothing. Unless you believe in a power stronger
than mine. In that case you might try praying a little."
Ross glanced at Jason, catching his eye, then looked
away quickly, swallowing hard as he took a chair
next to his daughter. Jason stood by the single window,
knowing he didn't belong there now, yet worried
about the girl.
Throughout the afternoon the rain let up, then
came again, as the doctor paced the small room,
stopping occasionally to take Paula's pulse or check
her eyes. Ross Sloan, holding his daughter's hand,
found his composure melting away, as tears reddened
his eyes and his lips quivered uncontrollably. With a
heavy sob, he buried his head beside his daughter's
Time dragged. Suddenly Ross raised his head,
staring at Paula, holding his breath. He jumped up as
he saw her trying to open her eyes. Slowly she came
around, finally focusing eyes on her father. "Where—
where— where's mother?"
Ross shook his head. "She's not here, honey."
Paula's eyes filled with tears as she clutched her
father's arms. "Let's go find them, daddy! Please!"
Ross glanced from Paula to Doctor Preece, over to
Jason, then back to Paula, and his shoulders straight-
ened ever so slightly. His voice was strangely soft, yet
strong. "All right, Paula, I promise we'll go as soon
as you get well enough. I promise."
Weakly Paula raised her arms to her father's neck.
"Oh, daddy, I love you so! I know we'll find them.
I just know we will!"
The doctor reached for her pulse. "Well, right now,
Miss Sloan, you'd better lie down and rest awhile."
Jason turned back to the window. The rain had
stopped, nothing more than a mist now. Suddenly he
was aware of Ross Sloan next to his shoulder.
"How come you risked your neck to pull her out?"
"Do you think you could have stood and watched
my son drown?"
Ross lowered his eyes, then poked out his hand.
"I— I want you to know I appreciate it. I don't know
what would happen if I'd lost her."
Jason shook his hand, then turned to the door.
"Well, Ronnie, I guess we'd better be on our way."
"Look, Mr. Call," Ross said, glancing at the floor,
"you can't leave. It'll be sometime before that river
drops enough that you can get across. Why— why
don't you and your son be my guests till then? I'll bet
it's been ages since either of you have slept under a
roof or ate at a table."
Ronnie stared up at Ross Sloan. "But you said if we
came back here you'd—"
"Yes, Ronnie," Ross broke in, "I remember only too
well. But I guess I lived with it for so long, it was
all I really knew what to say."
A wide rainbow arched its colors over the eastern
edge of town, and Ross turned from the image-
distorting window. A trace of a smile tugged at his
lips. "Well, we'd better get you out of those wet
clothes first thing, Mr. Call."
As they left the office, Ronnie hung back, touching
his father's coat sleeve lightly. "Dad, I guess he's not
as bad as I thought. Not really."
"No, son, he isn't. No man is, really." And Jason
put an arm around Ronnie's shoulders as they followed
Ross Sloan across the street. O
It's where Bob Bramerel takes his car.
Bob's a businessman -and a
weekend race driver.
His only preparations are a
tune-up, a little tape, and a
check in at The Performance
Stop-the Phillips 66 station.
That's where he fills up with Keepyour engine running
Phillips Flite-Fuel, the perform- clean with Flite-Fuel and Trop-
ance gasoline, and Trop-Artic® Artie. You can get them now
Motor Oil, with its exclusive at The Performance Stop-
detergent additive. They keep the Phillips 66 station near you.
his engine running clean—
and give him all the power
At Phillips 66
of the Treasury David M. Kennedy and
Secretary of Housing and Urban De-
velopment George Romney.
2] President and Sister Joseph Field-
ing Smith participated in the Days of
'47 parade in downtown Salt Lake City,
honoring the arrival of the pioneers
in Salt Lake Valley in 1847.
Early this evening Air Force One
landed at the Salt Lake Airport, bring-
ing President and Mrs. Richard M.
Nixon and their daughter Tricia for a
brief stopover in Salt Lake City, en
route to California. President Nixon
conferred for nearly an hour with the
First Presidency and Council of the
Twelve in the Church Office Building,
then attended the Days of '47 Rodeo
in the Salt Palace. Among those in
the President's party were two Latter-
day Saint Cabinet members, Secretary
The appointments of Harley K.
Adamson, Helen B. Gibbons, and Wil-
liam M. Foxley to the general board
of the Deseret Sunday School Union
Elder Howard W. Hunter of the
Council of the Twelve organized the
Nuku'alofa South and the Nuku'alofa
West stakes from the Nuku'alofa Stake
and the Tonga Mission, bringing the
total stakes in the Church to 520.
Tevita F. Mahuinga was sustained as
president of Nuku'alofa South Stake,
with Semisi Moli Negatuvai and Manase
Lutu Tonga as counselors. Orson H.
White was sustained as president of
Nuku'alofa West Stake, with Donald D.
Richins and Hamani F. Wolfgramm as
New stake presidency: Tevita Ka'ili
was sustained as president of Nuku'-
alofa Stake, with Sione Tualau Latu
and Tevita Uatahausi Mapa as coun-
The site where the Church was or-
ganized at Fayette, New York, was
dedicated as a visitors center by Presi-
dent N. Eldon Tanner of the First
An early morning $75,000 fire hit the
Taylorsville Stake center in suburban
Salt Lake County.
America's Witness for Christ, the
Book of Mormon pageant, opened its
season tonight at the Hill Cumorah in
upstate New York.
Q The First Presidency announced the
appointment of C. Bryant Whiting, of
Eager, Arizona,, as president of the
Arizona Temple, succeeding President
Jesse M. Smith.
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The appointments of Wendell B.
Mendenhall, H. Burke Peterson, Lysle
R. Cahoon, Thomas Y. Emmett, L.
Aldin Porter, Ferril A. Kay, and Derek
A. Cuthbert as Regional Representatives
of the Council of the Twelve were an-
The final performance of the pageant
America's Witness For Christ was pre-
sented at the Hill Cumorah. An esti-
mated 110,000 persons witnessed this
[jj Mrs. Lucile C. Reading, first coun-
selor in the Primary Association general
presidency, has been named managing
editor of the new children's magazine,
it was announced. Named as assistant
managing editor was Mrs. Gladys D.
Daines, who has been managing editor
of the Children's Friend.
Announcement was made of the
appointments of Dee F. Andersen,
Bountiful, Utah, as associate commis-
sioner for finance and business and as
secretary of the Church board of educa-
tion and board of trustees, and Richard
C. Stratford, Los Angeles, as the direc-
tor of development for the Church
educational systems and also executive
director of development at Brigham
The appointment of C. Kay Allen to
the general board of the Deseret Sun-
day School Union was announced.
The appointments of Helen Wright
Jeppson and Arlene Sonntag Kirton
to the Relief Society general board
^| Jay M. Todd, assistant managing
editor of the Improvement Era, has
been appointed managing editor of the
as yet unnamed new magazine for the
young people of the Church, it was an-
nounced. Elaine Cannon, who is serv-
ing as associate editor of the Era of
Youth, will be an associate editor of the
The appointment of Sara Broadbent
Paulsen to the general board of the
Primary Association was announced.
Era, October 1970 63
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Students Want in
By Albert L. Payne
Improvement Era Contributing Editor
• What do teenagers want from a
teacher? How do they think we ought
to teach? Do they want us to empha-
size content or method? What kind of
person shall we strive to be? Shall we
be aloof or warm, strict or permissive?
While many attempts to answer such
questions have been made, those who
have inquired about them have usually
done so from the point of view of
adults. Their conclusions appear to be
more certain about what not to do and
be than they are about the traits and
skills essential to success. This uncer-
tainty is reflected in the writings of
Frederic B. Knight. He says, "Some
minimum essentials can be stated, but
at present we are not certain as to how
we can use the knowledge of minimum
essentials which we now have." (Qual-
ities Related to Success in Teaching
[New York: Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, 1922], p. 34.)
A more recent and somewhat more
pessimistic appraisal of the situation
indicates that "the problem of teacher
effectiveness is so complex that no one
today knows what the competent teach-
er is." (B. J. Biddle and W. J. Ellena,
Contemporary Research on Teacher
Effectiveness [New York: Holt, Rein-
hart, and Winston, 1964], p. 2.)
In spite of these things, however, all
are perhaps aware of the fact that good
teaching does not just happen; there-
fpre, teachers are obligated to find
which traits and skills are foundational
to success and which are considered es-
sential by the teens they teach.
One factor that complicates our ef-
forts is that one discipline may require
a different philosophy of education,
method, and teaching personality than
another. It would appear, for example,
that as one goes from concrete to ab-
stract subject material, the problem of
teaching effectively becomes compli-
cated and difficult. From this point of
view the procedures and characteristics
of a mathematics teacher may be more
easily determinable than those of a
teacher in one of the social sciences,
and this complexity is greatly increased
when the teaching situation has to do
with morality, spirituality, and theol-
ogy. The Department of Seminaries
and Institutes of Religion has long
known, for example, that a successful
public school teacher may not be an
acceptable seminary teacher, and a
good seminary teacher may fail in
public schools. Personality require-
ments are very different in these in-
stances and may largely account for
A study that may come closer than
the above to answering the problems
of teaching in the Church is Glen A.
Mitchell's report of responses from 681
high school seminary students as to
Era, October 1970 65
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what they consider the most essential
personality traits and skills of seminary
teachers. (See "Personality Traits and
Skills Considered by Seminary Students
to Be Most Important for Successful
Released-time Seminary Teacher," un-
published master's thesis, BYU, 1967.)
The five top teaching skills and their
percentage of relative importance were:
Neces- Impor- Impor-
sary tant tant
1. Knowledge 67 25 6
2. Likes to teach 65 26 8
3. Is prepared
and organized 57 34 7
4. Teaches on the
student's level 56 30 11
5. Gives excellent
lessons 38 36 4
The five top traits of teachers were:
The above study is of importance to
teachers in the Church because we are
or should be urgently desirous of im-
proving the quality of our instruction.
To the degree we are able to delineate
the factors of success, we will tend to
eliminate failure and know greater
prosperity in this aspect of the Lord's
If one were to look at the first 15
traits and skills — the Mitchell study in-
cluding rating of 30 traits and 20 skills
— with a view to putting student an-
swers into somewhat sophisticated
terms, some ideas of importance would
be apparent. Four of the first five have
to do with the degree of maturity of the
teacher. Students put a very high de-
gree of importance on maturity. They
admire poise and self-confidence, sta-
bility, justice, and fairness. They seem
to be a little tired of teachers who are
too permissive. They want a disciplin-
arian, but they want discipline to be
in a spiritual atmosphere by one they
can look up to as a personal example.
The students who participated in the
Mitchell survey listed knowledge as the
skill of greatest importance. While
some may wonder at knowledge being
thought of as a skill rather than a
trait, this may be understandable if
one thinks in terms of the goals and
desires of teens rather than those of
adults. The young people reflect their
desire for a knowledgeable teacher who
is prepared and organized in order that
he might be able to give them excellent
and interesting lessons. But at the same
time, they want to be taught by some-
one who likes to teach. They want
teachers who enjoy the process or ex-
perience of instructing others, who
teach with enthusiasm and friendliness;
and they want to be stimulated to learn
in a cheerful or happy situation.
The third large category into which
one might logically place the student
responses is somewhat more difficult to
describe in one word. The responses
reflected concern about the ability or
inclination of a teacher to empathize
with them in order that there would
be a good rapport. This presupposes
that the teacher is genuinely interested
in his students, that he encourages
them and is considerate of and coop-
erative with them. It also includes the
idea that he is able to teach on their
level, provides for student differences,
and is willing to consider student opin-
ions. They seem to feel that if a teacher
is really interested in them, he will be
adaptable to their needs and interests.
Important lessons may be learned
from the above concepts:
The first is that young people want
to learn. Adults frequently hear them
complain about a particular teacher's
lack of discipline. While youth may,
and undoubtedly do, want discipline
for its own sake, the real basis for their
complaint is not so much the lack of
order as the lack of a favorable learn-
ing situation. Poor discipline destroys
one's chance to learn, and so classes
may be thought of as "a waste of time"
or a "big joke." Students resent this
kind of "nothingness" in the classroom,
and it becomes intolerable to most of
Another lesson of importance is that
as far as religious education is con-
cerned, the teacher — his personality,
character, degree of spirituality, and
procedure — is of great importance to
the learners. Young people want ex-
emplary leadership in the personalities
who teach them. In this respect they
are a present reminder of an adult's
nostalgic reminiscences of teachers
whose subject matter has long been
forgotten but whose influence is still
felt. And while this is true to some
degree in all teaching, it is especially
true and dramatically needful in the
field of religious education. Students
have less inclination to analyze the
character of their language teacher, for
example, because language is only a
means of conveyance, and the means
or art of communication is the impor-
tant lesson to learn. But this is not
true in religious education. Since re-
ligion is a way of life, the conveyer of
this way of life — the teacher, preacher,
missionary, leader — is part and parcel
of the lesson itself. Teachers in the
Church, although without pretense of
being the ideal, are nevertheless an im-
portant aspect of lesson content.
The admiration a student may feel
toward a teacher because of his strength
of character or spirituality is closely re-
lated to a third idea that may be
drawn from an analysis of surveys such
as that of Mitchell. Successful teachers
not only have stability and strength of
character, but they are also human.
Inclinations are that students feel more
comfortable with teachers who are also
struggling toward perfection. They
want teachers who are humble and
flexible enough to be close to them,
with good rapport, cheerfulness, and
understanding. In other words, they
want teachers who are in their world
to some degree, but not of it. Young
people desire teachers whose flexibility
enables them to be admired but not
removed, teachers who relate easily and
naturally to them and their problems
so that communication is open and
Students attach considerable impor-
tance to their desire for a cheerful
learning atmosphere and a teacher
with a sense of humor. While the
latter characteristic may be considered
an aspect of maturity, it is obvious that
individuals who have a sense of humor
are almost always flexible. It would
appear, therefore, that students need to
feel that the teacher is flexible enough
that they can imagine him living in
their world and feeling their feelings
and thinking their thoughts.
It would appear that a necessary pre-
requisite to having students think of
their teachers in wholesome, healthy
ways is for teachers to think of them-
selves in these ways. In other words,
the self-concept of the teacher must be
positive if students are to react positive-
ly to him. Teachers who think of them-
selves as adequate, wanted, capable,
and worthy of being followed are more
acceptable to young people. This op-
timism about self seems to be reflected
in attitudes about those they teach.
Under these circumstances students are
inclined to feel that they are accepted
for what they are, respected for what
they have achieved, and challenged to
live up to their full potential.
What do teenagers want from a
teacher? They want teachers who are
mature, knowledgeable, and empathet-
ic. They want an opportunity to learn,
a model to follow, and a warm rela-
tionship with an individual flexible
enough to be both accepting and help-
ful. Perhaps adults would profit by
listening to teenagers' ideas of what
they want from a teacher. O
Era, October 1970 67
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Have a Family
By Mary Ellen MacArthur
Illustrated by Ginger Brown
• It was a bitterly cold night in the
northern California campground
where we were spending a late fall
vacation, and we were huddled
close together in our tent for
warmth. Searching in a duffle bag,
I found one of the library books I'd
chosen before our departure for
reading aloud. The children, then
six and four, peered at the illus-
trations by lantern-light while I
read The Bears of Hemlock Moun-
Mary Ellen Romney MacArthur, a
Sunday School teacher in the East
Pasadena (California) Ward, is a
journalism graduate of Stanford
University. She and her husband,
Thomas D. MacArthur, have three
tain by Alice Dalgliesh, a charming
retelling of an old Pennsylvania
This charming book tells about
Benjy, who crossed the mountain to
borrow a big pot from his aunt. He
is told by his father and uncles
that there is nothing to be afraid of
in the woods. So when Benjy acci-
dentally finds himself lost after
dark, with something that sounds
very bear-like following him, he
keeps humming to himself,
"There are no bears on Hemlock
No bears, no bears
No bears at all."'
Finally he hides under the big pot
until his father and uncles find
him there, surrounded by bear
The thought of Benjy in the
woods with a bear snuffling around
him sent a prickly shiver down all
our spines as we cozied into our
sleeping bags in the woods. But
just two nights later, camped in a
nearly deserted Yosemite National
Park site, we were awakened in the
middle of the night by an awesome
sound of snuffling, growling, and
crunching, just inches from our
tent. We lay paralyzed in the dark,
listening, and afraid to move. It
seemed a very long time until a
noise scared the bears and off they
ran (having cleaned out our ice
chest), actually bumping into a
corner of our tent in their flight.
We continued silently lying there
for a minute more, trying to resume
breathing, when my husband softly
said, "There are no bears on Hem-
lock Mountain— no bears, no bears,
no bears at all." We all burst into
weak giggles. Ever since, "There
are no bears ..." has been a fam-
ily password for "whistling in the
This is just one of the precious
experiences we have shared through
the years as a result of reading
aloud to our children. What a
world of fun and learning we have
available to us through books! And
yet how easy it is to let the oppor-
tunities to read together slip by.
As mothers, most of us work hard
to prepare a balanced diet for our
children, trying to make sure we
include foods from each of the
basic food groups each day. But
intellectually, how many of our
children live consistently on a diet
of TV cartoons, comic books, and
cheap dime-store non-books— the
nutritional equivalent of potato
chips and soft drinks? We cannot
expect school alone to instill a love
for the valuable in our culture. Our
example, our tastes, and our en-
thusiasm are going to be much
more influential in the long run.
Most of us find it relatively easy
to read to our firstborn children
when they are little and our time is
less pressured. It is such fun to
cuddle a two-year-old before bed
and read a classic such as Marjorie
Wise Brown's Goodnight Moon.
"Goodnight stars, goodnight air,
goodnight noises everywhere."- The
challenge in reading together comes
when our families are older and
busier and more widespread in age.
"Why read to my older children,
who can read well by themselves?"
you may ask. For one thing, edu-
cators tell us that for most children
there are many years when the
interest level is far above reading
ability. Even when a child can,
with effort, read all the "hard
words," it is a while before reading
becomes easy and relaxed enough
to be fun. Perhaps an even more
compelling reason, for Latter-day
Saint families, is the sharing of
special experiences— the drawing
together of the family unit. What
a pleasure it is to sit with our
children closely gathered around
Our family's longest and most
exciting reading project started
several years ago when I came
Era, October 1970 69
Historical sections of the
Mormon story, featuring
the Mormon Tabernacle
Choir. Richard L. Evans
narrates the film with a
prologue by the famed
newscaster and traveler,
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across a copy of Laura Ingalls
Wilder's book Little House in the
Big Woods, which I had read and
loved in my childhood. We read
that first volume of her eight-book
series, and we all started living
double lives— our own and Laura's,
who lived 100 years ago! Mrs.
Wilder's remarkable story of her
growing-up years is one of the best
examples of books that appeal to
nearly everyone. The Ingalls fam-
ily settled on the fringes of Amer-
ica's last frontier, and Laura's
girlhood was marked by many
moves and hardships. But the un-
failing high standards of obedience, .
courtesy, and love that character-
ized her family made deep impres-
sions on my children.
"Pa lifted Mary up out of her
chair, and hugged both [her and
"You're my good girls," he said.
"And now it's bedtime. Run along,
while I get my fiddle."
"When Laura and Mary had said
their prayers and were tucked
snugly under the trundle bed's cov-
ers, Pa was sitting in the firelight
with the fiddle. Ma had blown out
the lamp because she did not need
its light. On the other side of the
hearth she was swaying gently in
her rocking chair and her knitting
needles flashed in and out above
the sock she was knitting.
"The long winter evenings of
firelight and music had come
We moved on with Laura through
succeeding volumes; it took several
years to read them all, with some
time out for our having a new
baby and other family projects.
When we began Those Happy,
Golden Years,* the last book in the
series, we all felt the sadness of
Laura's being grown up enough to
marry and leave her family, but
even worse was the knowledge that
there weren't any more volumes to
look forward to!
I would never have believed that
my restless ten-year-old son would
sit enthralled by the story of a
turn-of-the-century romance. But
Mrs. Wilder's concise, vivid style
makes it all seem so immediate and
real. Whether she is describing
how to build a log cabin or how to
sew a fashionable dress with a
bustle, she is making a whole era
of American history live for our
children. And how priceless are
the values of hard work, honesty,
and family love and respect she
There are many such wonderful
books for all ages that your family
can share. For a younger family,
A. A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh 5 is
a durable favorite. A modern chil-
dren's classic is E. B. White's
Charlotte's Web. You may be sur-
prised by these realistically talking
animals, but the book has some-
thing valuable to say about life and
death. The magical, haughty Mary
Poppins, 7 so different from her
movie self, is a fun read-aloud book
for grade schoolers. And for older
children and adults, The Hobbit*
is a marvelous introduction to the
fantasy world created by J. R. R.
Tolkien, complex yet ingenuous.
For something more boy-oriented,
Ralph Moody's Little Britches, 9 set
in the southwest United States, be-
gins another autobiographical series
for slightly older families. Rascal, 10
by Sterling North, is about a boy
and his pet raccoon and captures
the era of World War I while tell-
ing an unforgettable story. For a
complete change of pace, try the
story of Roosevelt Grady 11 by
Louisa R. Shotwell. This book
vividly portrays the life and dreams
of the small black son of migrant
workers in the South.
Fiction isn't the only good ma-
terial for reading aloud. Holling C.
Holling's lavishly illustrated nature
books, such as Paddle-to-the-Sea 1 -
and Pagoo, 1 '' teach geography and
biology in a most readable manner.
We shared a memorable home
evening with another family when
they found a film in our library's
loan collection on how Pagoo was
written. We then read the story of
Pagoo, the hermit crab, with great
Two more books with universal
appeal are Scott O'Dell's Island of
the Blue Dolphins 14 and Madeleine
L'Engle's A Wrinkle in Time. 15 The
first is a fictionalized account of an
Indian girl left alone on a Cali-
fornia offshore island and is based
on historical fact— "sad in a happy
way," as my daughter called it. A
Wrinkle in Time really has some-
thing for everyone. It is fantasy
and science fiction and at the same
time is peopled with fascinating
characters with real problems. The
concept of free agency is beauti-
fully presented, and I guarantee
you'll let the children stay up an
extra half hour so you can see how
it ends. (No fair peeking while
they're at school! )
What are the hardest things
about reading aloud? First, choos-
ing the right books. Don't be afraid
to ask at your local library for help;
children's librarians love to talk
about their business. Second, find-
ing the time to read. The phone
rings, the television goes on, the
children dash off to meetings or to
do homework. But make the time-
perhaps start on a vacation, when
you have more free time— and
you'll soon find that homework
magically gets done, baths are hur-
ried, and the audience will be there
if you promise them half an hour
of reading before bed. But don't
ask me how to get them into bed.
I, too, always want "just one more
1 Alice Dalgliesh, Bears of Hemlock Moun-
tain (New York: Scribner's, 1952).
2 Marjorie Wise Brown, Goodnight Moon
(New York: Harper, 1947).
3 Laura Ingalls Wilder, Little House in the
Big Woods (New York: Harper, 1932).
4 Laura Ingalls Wilder, These Happy, Golden
Years (New York: Harper, 1943).
5 A. A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh ( New York,
E. B. White, Charlotte's Web (New York:
7 P. L. Travers, Mary Poppins (New York:
8 J. R. R. Tolkien, The Hohbit (Boston:
!) Ralph Moody, Little Britches (New York:
10 Sterling North, Rascal (New York: Dut-
u Louisa R. Shotwell, Roosevelt Grady
(Cleveland: World, 1963).
12 Holling C. Holling, Paddle-to-the-Sea (Bos-
ton: Houghton-Mifflin, 1941).
13 Holling C. Holling, Pagoo (Boston: Hough-
14 Scott O'Dell, Island of the Blue Dolphins
(Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1960).
15 Madeleine L'Engle, A Wrinkle in Time
(New York: Farrar, 1962).
Era, October 1970 71
A sweet treat recipe from
CHOCOLATE PECAN PIE
2 squares unsweetened
3 tablespoons butter
% cup granulated
U AND I SUGAR
1 cup light corn syrup
3 eggs slightly beaten
1 teaspoon vanilla
1 cup coarsely chopped
1 unbaked 9" pie shell
V2 cup whipping cream,
Melt chocolate and butter over hot water. Combine sugar and syrup in
saucepan. Bring to boil over high heat, stirring until sugar is dissolved.
Boil 2 minutes. Add chocolate mixture. Pour slowly over egg, stirring
constantly. Add vanilla and nuts, pour into unbaked pie shell. Bake 375°,
45 to 50 minutes, or until filling is puffed completely across top.
Cool and top with whipped cream and pecan halves. Yield: 1 9" pie.
U and I Sugar Company
Factories in Garland and West Jordan, Utah; near Idaho Falls,
Idaho; Moses Lake and Toppenish, Washington.
The Presiding Bishop Discusses
How the Church Helps Youth
Meet the Problems of Today
• Our leaders have told us that
this is a choice generation. Presi-
dent Wilford Woodruff said, "The
Lord has chosen a small number
of choice spirits of the sons and
daughters out of all the creation
of God, who are to inherit this
earth; and this company of choice
spirits have been kept in the spirit
world for six thousand years to
come forth in the last days, to
stand in the flesh in this last dis-
pensation of the fulness of times,
to organize the Kingdom of God
upon the earth, to build it up and
to defend it. . . ." (Our Lineage,
It is easy to see why the Lord
has held back choice spirits to
come forth at this time. The task
at hand demands valiant and ded-
icated souls to carry forth the
kingdom of God, that the kingdom
of heaven might be established.
The environment in which this
must be achieved could, in many
respects, hardly be worse. Social
values and moral guidelines have
been largely erased. Political lead-
ers, educators, and even church-
men have denied the validity of
the rules for living found in the
scriptures, ancient and modern.
By Bishop John H. Vandenberg
Short-sighted conclusions based
on the limited reasoning powers
of men have been substituted for
the eternal wisdom perspective of
God. Physical science has moved
ahead so rapidly and become so
proficient that many young people
have lost track of God. Pseudo-
sciences have arisen that pretend
to determine the values and stan-
dards upon which the youth are
urged to base their morals and
ethics. Young people are constant-
ly being enticed by the siren calls
of so-called "activists" who would
solve the social and political prob-
lems of the world through lawless-
ness, violence, anarchy, or the de-
struction of man's free agency.
These forces deny man's divine
origin, the purpose of his earth
life, and the possibility of an ex-
istence beyond the grave.
It has been said this is the gen-
eration of "instant everything."
The patience and effort put forth
in previous generations to achieve
happiness have been replaced to
a disturbing degree by dependence
on the effortless effects of chemo-
therapy. Pills to wake up, to ener-
gize, to calm down, to put to sleep,
and supposedly even to enable a
person to look inside himself and
see his spirit or to make contact
with whatever spiritual forces he
feels are in the universe are sold
legally and illegally by the hun-
dreds of millions.
Because of the greater availabil-
ity of all kinds of information and
the stress that is put upon formal
education today, young people are
ready early in life for an enlarged
measure of participation and re-
sponsibility in the religious, social,
and political activities of their
world. Unless they can find within
the Church a way to apply their
strength and energy to the solution
of the problems of their lives and
the world in which they live, our
young people may seek avenues
outside the Church to make their
contribution. They should have the
opportunity, as early in life as pos-
sible, to experience activities and
relationships within the Church on
a satisfying spiritual plane. They
must experience early in life,
through their priesthood and
auxiliary activities, the lasting joys
of true spirituality that come from
personal effort and sacrifice for
others. Only then will they be
strong enough to withstand the
body- and soul-destroying forces
that surround them.
President David 0. McKay af-
firmed the importance of such
training when he said, "The spiri-
tuality of a ward will be commen-
surate with the activity of the youth
in that ward. The president of the
priests quorum is the bishop, by
ordination, and it is his duty to
have theconfidence of those young
men and girls of corresponding
age, for they will mold the moral
atmosphere of his ward."
The Church is prepared to meet
the challenge. Through the family
home evening and the home
teaching programs, parents today
are given help and guidance in
providing the person-to-person re-
lationships and home environment
necessary to develop the desired
motives, loyalties, and convictions
in the lives of their children to
withstand the moral and spiritual
buffeting of a world that is satu-
rated with sensualism.
The Aaronic Priesthood Personal
Achievement Program and the
comparable program for young
women give the young people ex-
perience in setting their own per-
sonal goals. Through this exercise
of individual responsibility they
will develop strength of character,
as well as greater communication
with parents and Church leaders.
The appointment of the Presid-
ing Bishopric as the scouting com-
mittee of the Church will bring
scouting into a more effective
auxiliary relationship as the activ-
ity program of the Aaronic Priest-
hood and will strengthen adult
leadership in both the priesthood
and scouting structures.
Daily religious instruction
through the seminary and insti-
tute programs is given to approxi-
mately 140,000 young members of
the Church all over the world.
Through this daily contact with one
another, studying and learning to
apply the scripture teachings,
these students are enabled to re-
new their determination to with-
stand the temptations to which
they are subjected.
One of the most effective tools
the Church has provided for youth
participation and leadership devel-
opment is the bishop's youth com-
mittee. Its main function is to im-
prove the effectiveness of Aaronic
Priesthood and auxiliary programs
by giving young people maximum
opportunity to suggest ways and
means to use the programs locally.
Through the bishop's youth com-
mittee the energy of youth can be
guided to build faith and testimony
in the future leaders of the Church.
An example of the effectiveness
of the proper use of the bishop's
youth committee was demonstrat-
ed in the recent success of the
"Good Samaritan" project held in
the Salt Lake City area, where the
youth of the Church were called
upon to raise funds to help build a
meetinghouse for another denom-
ination. Representatives of those
who participated expressed them-
selves as being excited about the
project and grateful for the oppor-
tunity to prove that they could be
depended upon to come up with
excellent ideas and carry them out.
They worked hard, and when it was
over they were surprised to dis-
cover an added dividend in the in-
creased love and understanding
for their fellow workers as well as
for those they served.
Young people are concerned
about the needs of their fellowmen
and sincerely want to help them.
They are idealistic and impression-
able. The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints, therefore, is
providing them with the opportu-
nities they need to learn service
and sacrifice within the framework
of the priesthood and auxiliaries.
When they are in the service of
God and their fellowmen, they have
a shield against the wiles of
Era, October 1970 73
This is when your insurance man
has to go to work for you . To make
sure he will, make sure now he's
an independent insurance agent.
His job is to serve you first when
you need help most. We're inde-
pendent agents. Call us any time.
you &/ Mndependenr
. Insurance § /agent t
SERVES VOU FIRST
HEBER J. GRANT & CO.
General Agents, Salt Lake City
SELL THIS FLAVOR-SEALED
PEANUT BRITTLE AND MAKE
$50 to $500 CASH
FOR YOUR CHURCH, SCHOOL, CLUB
$50.00 CASH every time 10 members of your
group each sell 10 cans of Old-Fashioned Pea-
nut Brittle at $1.00 per can.
100% MARK-UP! This delicious Peanut
Brittle, in new easy-open cans, costs your group
only 50c each and sells for $1.00!
NO INVESTMENT! NOT EVEN lc! Order 120
to 1200 cans today. Take up to 30 days to
send payment. Give your name, title, phone
number and complete* address, the name, ad-
dress, etc. of 2nd officer, name of group,
quantity desired, and nearest Freight Office
(no parcel post). We ship F.O.B., Birmingham
with EXTRAS INCLUDED FREE to cover
shipping cost. Orders accepted groups only.
900 No. 19th St., Birmingham, Alabama 35203
Built to last a lifetime!
Mills on hand. No waiting.
Grain and Corn mill
• Grinds and Prepares wheat, corn,
nuts, seeds, etc.
• Adjustable . . . Quickly and easily
regulates for fine or coarse
• Finer Plates ... All of our Coronas
equipped with "special made"
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Grinds about a pound per
$11.75 Postpaid West of Rockies
$12.75 Postpaid East of Rockies
$14.95 Postpaid in Canada
Extra Grinding Plates — $1.95 Set Postpaid
Special prices to church groups.
We also have breadmixers, juicers, and other useful items.
Smithfield Implement Co.
99 North Main
Smithfield, Utah 84335
alt fake ®nbtmr ggsj
Actios 8W1 I
- 111* ^^ .. _ .%r-.r z _. Hc.ieVtO i
~- ■ T: :^^*Zn^t^,ttmf$ffiM . ^.rXxV?!
• The following are rules the
Church Magazine Office is using
to apply the Era, Instructor, and
Relief Society credits toward the
new adult magazine.
The subscriber's name and ad-
dress as it appears on the Era file
will be used for the adult magazine.
The Era file is being used as the
base for the adult file. The months
remaining on an Instructor sub-
scription and a Relief Society
Magazine subscription will be
added to the Era subscription.
The number of adult magazines
a subscriber receives will be de-
termined by the number of Eras
being received. If a person is not
receiving an Era, the number of
adult magazines he receives will be
determined by the number of In-
structors being received. If a per-
son is not receiving the Era or In-
structor, the number of adult
magazines he receives will be de-
termined by the number of Relief
Society Magazines being received.
In the case of institutional sub-
scribers, such as seminaries, insti-
tutes, and ward libraries, the
number of adult magazines they
will receive will be determined by
the largest number they are re-
ceiving of either the Era or the
Following are samples of typical
situations encountered in the com-
bining of Era and Instructor sub-
scriptions. The rule being followed
in each case is stipulated. While it
is realized that on occasion these
may not be the actions subscribers
desire, rules have to be adopted
that would seem to apply in most
cases. Where a particular example
fits your situation and the action
taken isn't what is desired, write
and tell the Church Magazine Of-
fice what you want done, and your
wishes will be followed.
If the complete name and address are exactly the same on the Instructor
and Era lists, the remaining months of the Instructor beyond December will
be added to the Era by the computor.
Era Subscription List
Instructor Subscription List
OLIVE A HUME
216 E 3rd S
OCT70 84302HUME-216EO17 JAN72
OLIVE A HUME
216 E 3rd S
UT 84302 BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
2. If the last name and address (house number and/or box number) are the
same, these will be combined.
RT 1 Box 163
MAR71 84302JPPS1163RA19 NOV74
ALVIN R JEPPSON
RT 1 BOX 163
UT 84302 BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
3. In rural areas, where house or box numbers are not used, if the names,
including the initials, are exactly the same, these will be combined.
RT 2 BOX 59
NOV70 84302VLCROHN2RJ17 FEB71
UT 84302 BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
4. If the names are exactly the same but one has a box number and the other
has no box number, these will be combined.
FRED A BINGHAM
OCT70 84314BINGHAMFRE17 FEB72
FRED A BINGHAM
HONEYVILLE UT 84314
5. If the names are exactly the same but one has a box number and a route
number and the other has a route number only, these will be combined.
RT 2 BOX 338
BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
6. If the names are exactly the same and both have the same route number
and one has a box number or house number, these will be combined. In
rural areas, subscriptions will not be combined unless the names are exactly
the same. (Exception: Mrs. has been added to one name, such as Fred Jones
and Mrs. Fred Jones.) *-
Era, October 1970 75
New rotating can food shelving units.
For home daily use and storage.
Save Money — Buy by the case — No
spoilage by rotating — If moving,
Easy to get at- — convenient.
Mobile Home Owners
New and Old Home Owners
Save money on your new shelving plus save
space. The CEDASTOR units cost less than
it would cost you to build shelving out of
wood to accommodate the same volume of
Length 28", Width 21", Height 23".
Four models to choose from —
each holding 5y 2 or more cases
in a variety of can sizes.
Ask about our low priced hand made cedar chests.
P. 0. Box 11357, Salt Lake City, Utah
Phone (801) 292-0745
A CHANCE OF A LIFETIME TO
HAVE A FABULOUS BUSINESS OF
YOUR OWN — No investment re-
quired — Full or part time — Men
or Women — No age limitation. Write
at once for details. Address OPPOR-
TUNITY, P. 0. BOX 2224, Salt Lake
City, Utah 84110.
Pure elegance of line, cut and design, this
Special Session Dress is beautifully tradi-
tional with lace yoke and cuffs. Expressly
created for both slender and full figures.
Wear newly belted or flowing free. Ad-
justable lace collar . . . hidden back zipper
. . . slash pockets. 1 00% Nylon tricot and
lace. P,S,M,L,XL. No. SSD-E.
See Your Local
Le Voy's Consultant
Mail Check or M.O.
Postpaid in U.S.A.
Matching Slip. 30
to 38. *6245. $12.00
2511 S.W. Temple * Salt Lake City, Utah 84115
115 E 7TH S
7. If there are two Era subscriptions with the same address and one Instructor
subscription with the same address but different first names, the remaining
months on the Instructor will be divided between the two Era subscriptions.
348 N 5TH E
348 N 5th E
EARL L GRAY
348 N 5th E ST
8. If there are two Instructor subscriptions and one Era subscription with the
same last name, same address but different first names, the two Instructor
subscriptions will be combined and added to the Era subscription.
294 LINDA WAY
OCT71 84302CEFL-294LM16 MAR71
MARILYN R CEFALO
294 LINDA WAY
UT 84302 BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
LOUISE MILLER CEFALO
294 LINDA WAY
BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
9. If there are two Instructor subscriptions with the same name and one has
only a town address and the other has a box number, and an Era subscription
with the same last name and box number, the two with the box number
will be combined and the one with only a town address will be added to the
adult magazine file.
BRIGHAM CITY UT 84302
On a Green Hill
By Evalyn M. Sandberg
This single shaft
of wild oats
just inches from my eye
seems larger than the
the high, cool sky.
proximity to me
than all mortal life
and dwarfs eternity.
By Mildred V. Barthel
As soon as
I opened the door,
Her warm voice,
Vibrant with good humor
That bubbled up from a
Deep source of goodness,
Welcomed me home
The rancor that the
School day might have had,
To share a joke
To smell supper coming.
Even our silences
and the growing
Of whole lives.
Era, October 1970 77
Wheat is tor man. Retain the valuable
nutrients lost through other milling
methods. Use the wheat you now have
stored and save money while enjoying
better tasting, more nutritious food.
All Grain Stone Grinding
Also available: High protein wheat for
use or storage.
For full information, write:
ALL-GRAIN FLOUR MILL
Dept. E P.O. Box 115
Tremonton, Utah 84337
Openings available for full or part-time
If there is a book
ash us about it.
We specialize in out-of-print
LDS and Utah publications.
HON BOOK STORE
254 So. Main
Salt Lake City, Utah 84101
one of the best in the U.S.
Storage Purposes ■HH
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An ideal gift for missionaries and
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Utah residents adrt 4V
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CITY, STATE, ZIP
• "I enjoyed Hamlet very much,"
said my remarkable grandfather,
as he arrived backstage. "Queen
Gertrude was nicely believable,
though younger than I had ex-
pected. But don't you think Ham-
let's scene with the gravedigger
should have been left in? It docu-
ments his age and gives comic relief
to the play."
My grandfather is an unusual
man. Several thousand people had
seen the production, but he was the
first to display a thoughtful fore-
knowledge of the play.
The next morning I discussed the
performance with my wife and told
her of grandfather's remarks. "I
don't understand your surprise,"
she said. "You've always been
smugly proud of your family."
"I know," I said. "But why? Is a
little knowledge of Hamlet so
"I suppose," she replied, "it's be-
cause the classics are not so prized
today as they once were."
Her comment troubled me. Fi-
nally we decided to try a modest
experiment. Choosing two family
members— an elderly man who had
completed one year of high school
work and a 25-year-old woman who
had studied for two years in a
modern university— we asked them
a series of questions about classical
subjects, such as:
1. Describe the history of the
House of Atreus.
2. Who was Iphigenia?
3. What was Agamemnon's trag-
4. Discuss Horace's defense of
5. Discuss a few aspects of Aris-
totle's attitude toward the artist.
6. Name ten plays written by
7. Who was the beloved of
By Dr. Lael J. Woodbury
Of course, neither gave all correct
answers. But we learned that for
each correct answer offered by the
young woman, five were given by
the man! He was obviously more
widely read than she in classic
subjects. Furthermore, he could
recite scenes and segments from
Greek plays and poems from
Why? Natural male superiority?
My wife doesn't think so. Matu-
rity? The man hadn't attended
school for almost forty years.
Apparently, we decided, his
generation simply assumed that a
knowledge of the classic arts is
worth acquiring. Then, as now, the
word and knowledge of God was
the fundamental preoccupation of a
Latter-day Saint. But then it was
understood, possibly more than
now, that God's influence is mani
fest in everything beautiful and
lovely, as suggested in the thir-
teenth Article of Faith, and that the
arts' basic mission is to refine,
sensitize, enlighten, and inspire the
spirit of man, and make him more
like his Father in heaven.
Forty years ago, this concept of
culture directly influenced a stu-
dent's approach to education. He
was taught little about accumulat-
ing money and much about its
proper use. He studied why we
live, not just how we live. From the
classic dramas, he learned that
man, under duress, will reveal sub-
lime examples of spiritual strength;
and in the process, he discovered
inspiring parallels between the
superhumanness of handcart pio-
neers and Greek tragic heroes. He-
learned to compare his values with
those of antiquity, to measure his
own artistic achievement against
those of other civilizations, and to
memorize segments of classic litera-
ture so that he would have stan-
dards with which to evaluate
Since then, however, assump-
tions about the merits of a classical
literary education have come under
fire. More precisely, views of what
is civilizing have shifted to where
our approaches toward artistic and
spiritual refinement are unlike those
of forty years ago.
The cultural contrast between
generations is illustrated in many
talks given in the Church. The re-
marks of elderly persons are often
laced with poetry, dramatic quo-
tations, classic allusions, and frag-
ments of great orations. Often they
can identify the exact source of the
idea they will discuss. On the other
hand, many young speakers refer
to advertising jingles, fragments
from movies, or humorous puns and
verses. They often stress the
Lael J. Woodbury, high councilor
in the Sharon East Stake, is assis-
tant dean of the College of Fine
Arts and Communications at Brig-
ham Young University.
Era, October 1970 79
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practicality of an idea rather than
Does this sharp contrast— this
shift from the classic to the con-
temporary—signify that our current
generation is without culture, stan-
dards, or refinement? Hardly. Our
best schools stress the importance
of developing the whole person-
ality (although this attitude is
not facts only.
They prized wisdom
constantly subverted by those in-
terested only in intellectual achieve-
ment). Today's generation travels
widely, has great mechanical abil-
ity, and often is skilled in foreign
languages. It knows and applies
the demonstrable laws of the uni-
verse, a process requiring discipline
and reason. Automobiles, atoms,
and asteroids are very much a part
of its thinking. No one suggests
that young people know less than
their progenitors, only that their
knowledge is of a different kind;
and their knowledge is important
because each generation accumu-
lates information useful in its own
But knowledge, we are often re-
minded, is not the same as wisdom
or sensitivity, nor does it automat-
ically satisfy emotional or spiritual
needs. A man works hard, some-
times at work that is unpleasant, so
that afterwards he may watch tele-
vision, read, attend a dance, or
bowl. He thinks of these activities
as recreation. He uses knowledge
so that he will have the time and
means for aesthetic experiences that
his technical skills do not provide.
In the movie he weeps; at the
dance he moves, laughs, and visits.
If the book, movie, or conversation
provokes thought and insight, he
achieves satisfactions worth his
labor. If his unscheduled time
is pleasurable only— if it doesn't
stretch, magnify, or inform his soul
—he is cheated of the very reward
for which he labored. The cultural
arts serve that dimension of man's
need. Society may need field hands
more than singers of songs; but
after the harvest, those laborers will
give part of their wages to hear the
Simple songs make a simple ap-
peal, however. Before long both
the artist and perceiver demand
more complex works. But because
the classic arts are complex, they
appear to be forbidding and
antiquated. And so we content our-
seves with movies, popular poetry,
magazines, and music that are de-
signed for diversion only— never for
spiritual enhancement. Consequent-
ly, we equate diversion with culture
and thereby deprive ourselves of
that unspeakably profound enrich-
ment, so akin to spiritual experi-
ence, that great art generates for
those who perpeive it greatly.
The alarming fact is that we are
exposed to popular art without
standards by which to measure it.
Our instincts may indicate what is
immoral, if not amoral, but then
again, they may not. If we have
never witnessed anything more
serious than an adventure movie,
if a catchy television commercial
represents our concept of poetry,
how can we know the awesome
power of a great tragedy, the
exhilarating joy of a stirring sym-
phony, or the magnitude and drama
of an epic poem? If we know no
other world, we are confined to the
world we do understand, because it
is all we have ever known, and
citizenship there requires no serious
Here is an interesting paradox:
many people as they mature are
converted from popular to classical
concepts of culture but few move
from classical to pop. Why? Be-
cause authentic culture is wisdom
and spiritual sensitivity. These
qualities, once acquired, are price-
less. And it is here, I believe, that
our ancestors' classically oriented
"liberal" education was especially
praiseworthy. They pursued values,
not facts only. They prized wisdom
above knowledge. They analyzed
fewer subjects and took the time
to absorb bench mark masterworks.
The cost of bench marks is high.
One seldom completely enjoys a
classic drama, painting, or poem the
first time he encounters it. It is too
complex, too profound. But fre-
quent and repetitious exposure
reveals its mood, then its colors and
tensions, eventually its structure,
and finally its philosophy. In time,
key artworks become so much a
part of the person that he measures
all others against them, and, in a
parallel motion, he starts to admit
into his life only those people, arts,
and experiences that are equally
spiritual and profound.
This is not speculation. Compare
your experience with mine. I have
never known a man who, while
meditative and profound in his
tastes, was frivolous in his acts and
decisions. He could be wrong, but
Today's is not a shallow genera-
tion, but some may misread the
directions toward the deeper cur-
rents of life. We all want the same
thing— schooling in this existence
that prepares us to live with our
Father in heaven. We can win that
objective by deliberately and re-
peatedly exposing ourselves to
artistic and intellectual achieve-
ments that the centuries have
tested and endorsed. O
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• Two parents, five brothers, and
three sisters of the Prophet Joseph
Smith were living at the time of
the coming of Moroni, and each
became a devout believer in the
reality- of the revelations. They
comprise a virtual jury qualified to
evaluate the consistency of Joseph's
early story and his personal believ-
ability in telling it. Without dissent,
these eleven gave total acceptance.
The first person to believe in the
angel's coming was the Prophet's
father. The Prophet went to the
field the morning after the triple
vision of instruction, but physical
exhaustion prevented his working.
As he was leaving the field, the
angel appeared to reiterate his
message, "and commanded me to
go to my father and tell him of
the vision and commandments
which I had received." 1 Lucy
Mack Smith added a detail likely
to have been remembered by a
parent— that the angel was actually
requesting an explanation for
Joseph's not following prior instruc-
tions to report the visions to his
father. Joseph's answer was that
he feared his father's skepticism;
however, "the angel rejoined, 'He
will believe every word you say to
him.' " 2 One manuscript account
adds vividness to the event. In an
y Dr. Richard Lloyd Anderson
Illustrated by Dale Kilbourn
1835 conversation, the Prophet re-
called the moment when he first
informed his father of the angel's
visit: "The old man wept, and told
me that it was a vision from God,
and to attend it." :!
Joseph Smith, Sr., was the patri-
arch of his family, and in at least
one family gathering voiced for all
a complete faith in his son's visions.
In 1834 the Smith family and a few
Church leaders gathered to receive
their blessings from Joseph Smith,
Sr., the appointed Patriarch to the
Church. In an informal service
preceding this semi-private meet-
ing, the Prophet's father reviewed
the "many afflictions" of the fam-
ily, including some deaths, particu-
larly that of the beloved Alvin,
"taken from us in the vigor of life,
in the bloom of youth." 4 The Patri-
arch was expressing the intimate
feelings of his entire family.
His remarks were followed by
prayer and then the initial bless-
ing, given to Joseph Smith, Jr. The
opening words reviewed the experi-
ences now accepted by the family
that had known the Prophet from
boyhood: "The Lord thy God has
called thee by name out of the
heavens; thou hast heard his voice
from on high from time to time,
even in thy youth." 5
The process by which this family
acquired such profound conviction
can be reconstructed through the
detailed writings of the mother and
younger brother of the Prophet.
These two present significantly dif-
ferent points of view. Certainly no
one knew Joseph Smith, Jr., more
intimately than his mother. But
for all of her faith in God and the
calling of her son, she resists the
temptation to glorify his every act.
For instance, she begins her story
of the early visions with the admis-
sion that she had told little about
the youth of the Prophet. "Some of
my readers will be disappointed,"
she acknowledges, since leading
questions had been repeatedly put
to her about supposed "remarkable
incidents" of his childhood: "but, as
nothing occurred during his early
life except those trivial circum-
stances which are common to that
state of hurrian existence, I pass
them in silence." 6 Such realism
argues well for Lucy Mack Smith's
honesty in the remaining record of
The memoirs of William Smith
nicely supplement those of the
mother. One sees Joseph Smith
through very feminine, the other
through very masculine eyes. More-
over, the confidence of the mother
is balanced by the more detached
point of view of the brother. In
this case, the brother is the most
spiritually skeptical of all of the
Smith family. His later religious
history proves a lifelong rebel-
liousness, tempered only by older
At the time of Joseph Smith's
visions, Hyrum and Samuel H.
Smith had followed their mother
into the Presbyterian Church, while
most other family members were
religious yet aloof from organized
religion. William, however, de-
scribes himself as not even religious.
Family worship "often became irk-
some or tiresome to me," he writes
of this early period; he paid "no
attention to religion of any kind.
. . ." Only a powerful experience
could unite this religiously divided
family, and Lucy Mack Smith and
William represented opposite poles.
Carelessly quoting William Smith
is an irresponsible procedure. He
published rather detailed recollec-
tions of his youth in 1S83. 7 He also
wrote detailed comments on the
published stories about the Prophet
about 1875. s Besides this, access to
William's memory is gained mainly
through an interview of 1841, 9 a
speech of 1884, ao and an inter-
view of 1893. n These five basic
sources for William Smith show a
historical method that resembles
his religious career, spontaneous
and not highly organized. Sequence
is not as important to him as mak-
ing his point with a random illus-
tration. One must be aware of
these characteristics because he
does not relate the first vision of
his brother. That is understandable,
first of all, because he was barely
nine when it took place. Further-
more, speaking of later visions, he
indicated firm belief but careless-
ness: "being young and naturally
high-spirited, I did not realize the
importance of such things as I
should have done. . . " r - Memory
depends on deep interest. William,
therefore, writes impressionistic
history, recalling accurately his
basic feelings of a time while often
only approximating details. In this
matter, he is his own best critic,
for more than once he alerts the
reader that Joseph Smith's story is
more precise than his own: "A more
elaborate and accurate description
of his vision, however, will be found
in his own history." 1 ''
Through the recollections of
Lucy Mack and William Smith, the
clock can be turned back to the day
when Joseph announced Moroni's
coming to the family. As discussed,
the stripling prophet first confided
this news to his father in the field.
Of course, Lucy Smith was not
there, but from family knowledge
she reported that on that morning
Alvin noticed an unusual slackness
in Joseph's work and that "Joseph
was very pale." 11 William con-
firmed this episode from firsthand
knowledge: "I was at work in the
field together with Joseph and my
eldest brother Alvin. Joseph looked
pale and unwell. . . ." 15
The most dramatic moment that
day for the family circle was
Joseph's narration to them of his
visions of the night before. William
places this event prior to Joseph's
going to the hill, and Mother Smith
afterwards. Yet both could be
right. Possibly Joseph gave an
announcement before and a de-
tailed report afterwards. As to the
family's reaction, there is no doubt.
Lucy Mack Smith describes the
intense interest of Alvin and "the
most profound attention" of the
entire family at Joseph's first re-
ports of what had happened to him.
William also described the family's
reaction to Joseph's explanations:
"They were astounded, but not
altogether in credulous. " 1(!
The foregoing words are those of
an interested professor of church
history who talked at length with
William in 1841. Later William
specifically described the reaction
of the Smiths when Joseph told
them of Moroni's coming:
"[H]e arose and told us how the
angel appeared to him, what he had
told him. . . . He continued talking
to us [for] sometime. The whole
family were melted to tears, and
believed all he said. Knowing that
he was very young, that he had not
enjoyed the advantages of a com-
mon education; and knowing too,
his whole character and disposi-
tion, they were convinced that he
was totally incapable of arising be-
fore his aged parents, his brothers
and sisters, and so solemnly giving
Era, October 1970 83
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utterance to anything but the
truth." 17 In this comment William
singled out reasons for the implicit
trust of the household in the nearly
18-year-old Joseph: his limited
education, and "his whole character
and disposition." There are im-
portant historical insights on these
points that enable one to see young
Joseph Smith through the eyes of
his day-to-day companions.
First of all, it came as a shock
that the teenager thought himself
capable of writing a book. One
autobiographical sketch summarizes
his total education in one terse
sentence: "My father was a farmer
and taught me the art of hus-
bandry." 18 That is to say, muscle
and tools were his skills, not study
and books. Although not illiterate,
Joseph at this point of life was
relatively unskilled in reading and
writing. One contemporary at Pal-
myra pays him the compliment ol
showing native intelligence in the
"juvenile debating club," 19 but it is
a long leap from that to gaining
either the interest or capacity to
Joseph himself commented on the
demands of life that prevented his
doing much reading. He mentioned
the "indigent circumstances" of the
family, and the necessity "to labor
hard" to support the dozen mem-
bers alive in 1823. This "required
the exertions of all that were able
to render any assistance for the sup-
port of the family; therefore, we
were deprived of the benefit of an
education. Suffice it to say, I was
merely instructed in reading, writ-
ing, and the ground rules of arith-
metic, which constituted my whole
literary acquirements." 20
William and Lucy Smith concur.
The former pictures his brother as
educated only in a rudimentary
way : "That he was illiterate to some
extent is admitted, but that he was
entirely unlettered is a mistake. In
syntax, orthography, mathematics,
grammar, geography, with other
studies in the common schools of
his day, he was no novice, and for
writing, he wrote a plain, intelligi-
ble hand."- 1 In other words, Joseph
had taken advantage of limited op-
portunities for basic education, but
( as his mother insists ) he was any-
thing but widely read: at 18 he
"had never read the Bible through
in his life. He seemed much less
inclined to the perusal of books
than any of the rest of our children,
but far more given to meditation
and deep study." 22 The Smith fam-
ily measured the adolescent Joseph
and found it unbelievable that he
would know history or aspire to
writing it down without the divine
direction that he claimed.
If formal education was sub-
ordinate to survival, it was the
latter that fashioned the personali-
ties of the men of the Smith family.
Here Alvin's known dutifulness
reveals the similarly conditioned
traits of the older sons— and Alvin's
dutifulness was also a profound in-
fluence on Joseph. The Prophet
had loved and identified with his
oldest brother. Visiting his sister
Katherine 20 years after Alvin's
death, he recalled the use of his
brother's physical prowess in de-
fending an underdog: when one
Irishman sought to gouge out an-
other's eyes in a fight, "Alvin took
him by his collar and breeches and
threw him over the ring, which had
been formed to witness the fight." 23
To love Alvin was to love his
capacity for obedience: "I remem-
ber well the pangs of sorrow that
swelled my youthful bosom and al-
most burst my tender heart when
he died. He was the oldest and the
noblest of my father's family. . . .
In him there was no guile. He lived
without spot from the time he was
a child. From the time of his birth
he never knew mirth. He was can-
did and sober and never would
play, and minded his father and
mother in toiling all day. . . ." 21
An untimely death came to Alvin
in 1823. His mother recounts the
deathbed drama, as he exhorted his
mature brothers to the responsibil-
ity that he had shouldered all of his
life. He also encouraged his brother
Joseph to be obedient to the revela-
tions of the angel. It is impressive
that such a strong personality as
Alvin believed in Joseph's revela-
tions implicitly. It is also impressive
that he considered Joseph an obedi-
ent person. Obviously a great
measure of Alvin's seriousness
about life was also found in the
personality of his prophet-brother.
William writes: "I was quite wild
and inconsiderate, paying no atten-
tion to religion of any kind, for
which I received frequent lectures
from my mother and my brother
His mother gives this same pic-
ture of Joseph. Late in life she
summarized her achievement of
raising a half-dozen boys and ob-
served, "never was there a more
obedient family." 20 This is known
to be true of the cluster of older
brothers that surrounded Joseph.
Alvin, about seven years Joseph's
senior, "was a youth of singular
goodness of disposition— kind and
amiable. . . ," 27 Hyrum, older than
Joseph by some six years, was "re-
markable for his tenderness and
sympathy" and consistently was "a
good, trusty boy." 28 Samuel, some
two years younger than Joseph,
"always performed his missions
faithfully," 29 whether in the Church
or in the Smith household. These
characterizations of her sons by
Lucy Mack Smith harmonize com-
pletely with their personalities in
later life.'' His mother said that
Joseph, a product of the same en-
vironment, was "a remarkably
quiet, well-disposed child." 31
The responsibilities that molded
these elder Smith brothers were
alluded to by the younger William.
Era, October 1970 85
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He summed up the economic chal-
lenge of moving on to forested land
and the result obtained within
seven years: "While there we
cleared a large farm, built a house,
planted an orchard, and had com-
menced living in more comfortable
circumstances." 32 The details are
impressive. "We cleared sixty acres
of the heaviest timber I ever saw," 33
this work "in about five years." 34
"Some of the elms were . . . too
large to be cut with a cross-cut
saw." 31 After cutting, the wood was
gathered for burning: if anyone
"had wanted to see Joseph at that
time and remained very long, he
would have had to be in the field
rolling logs or carrying brush." 30
On the place there were "from
twelve to fifteen hundred sugar
trees, and to gather the sap and
make sugar and molasses from that
number of trees was no lazy job." 37
Originally, their land did not even
have a dwelling on it: "The im-
provements made on this farm
[were] first commenced by build-
ing a log house at no small expense,
and at a later date a frame house
at a cost of several hundred dol-
lars," 3 * a cash outlay in scarce
dollars after the 1820 depression.
A "good fence" around 60 acres was
also built, and "outbuildings, etc." 39
In addition to their own taxing
work, the older sons constantly
hired out: "Whenever the neigh-
bors wanted a good day's work
done, they knew where they could
get a good hand, and they were
not particular to take any of the
other boys before Joseph, either." 40
In all the labor described above,
"Joseph did his share of the work
with the rest of the boys." 41 Over-
years of trying conditions, the
Smith family knew Joseph as per-
sonally dependable, no small test in
a frontier society. This is the ob-
jective background for William's
view that Joseph's "whole character
and disposition" compelled all the
family to believe in his visions.
One episode from the Prophet's
youth brings his basic nature into
sharp focus. This is his painful
bone extraction without anesthesia
in late childhood, known ordinarily
from Lucy Mack Smith's published
account of it, but also recorded in
fair detail in a Nauvoo manuscript
note by the Prophet. Before ob-
serving Joseph's heroism in that
ordeal, it is necessary to discuss
some background of that event.
All of the Smith children had been
born in Vermont up to and includ-
ing William, whose birthdate there
is March 13, 1811. Then Lucy
Mack Smith says that the family-
moved during 1811 to Lebanon,
New Hampshire, where Katherine
was born July 8, 1812. 42
While at Lebanon Joseph Smith's
operation took place. An approxi-
mate date is possible because this
surgery was preceded by an epi-
demic that threatened the lives of
several of the Smith children. As
Mother Smith says, "The typhus
fever came into Lebanon, and
raged tremendously." 43 Joseph re-
membered being cared for in this
period by Dr. Smith, of nearby
Hanover. This dates the epidemic,
for Dr. Nathan Smith moved from
Dartmouth College to Yale Univer-
sity in the fall of 1813. 44 Further-
more, writing his medical memoirs
in 1831, he remembered a typhus
epidemic at the time: "In the
autumn of 1812, Professor Perkins,
now of New York, and myself, at-
tended between fifty and sixty
cases of typhus in the vicinity of
Dartmouth College. . . ." 45 Joseph's
leg infection followed the epidemic,
so it is highly probable that his
operation took place in the winter
of 1812-1813. This means that we
are studying the reactions of a boy
seven years of age.
The "typhus" of that epidemic
would now be typhoid, complica-
tions after which may affect bone
tissue in the manner indicated by
Lucy and Joseph Smith. Both re-
count the infectious pain and its
intensification in his leg, but Joseph
gives the more objective, summary
"And I endured the most acute
suffering for a long time, under the
care of Drs. Smith, Stone, and
Perkins, of Hanover. At one time
eleven doctors came from Dart-
mouth Medical College, at Han-
over, New Hampshire, for the
purpose of amputation, but, young
as I was, I utterly refused to give
my assent to the operation, but
consented to their trying an experi-
ment by removing a large portion
of the bone from my left leg, which
they did. And fourteen additional
pieces of bone afterwards worked
out before my leg healed, during
which time I was reduced so very
low that my mother could carry me
with ease. And after I began to get
about, I went on crutches till I
started for the state of New
York " 4fi
After 30 years, Joseph Smith re-
called his basic facts correctly.
Doctors Smith and Perkins did
practice jointly in Hanover and
were on the Dartmouth medical
faculty. The "eleven doctors" were
undoubtedly medical students-
some 18 graduated in the class of
1813. Dr. Smith was famed for his
skill as a surgeon in such cases.
In fact, accounts of his operations
and the recollections of Joseph and
Lucy Smith precisely agree. More
might be said of all this; the ques-
tion at hand, however, concerns
the insight that the incident gives
into the character of young Joseph
The first significant point con-
cerns what Joseph Smith did not
say about himself. Spare of words
and terse on his own suffering, he
treats his own experience without
exaggeration. Such a fact has ob-
vious implications for assessing
Era, October 1970 87
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The Improvement Era
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and at book dealers everywhere
whether his supernatural experi-
ences might be believed. His moth-
er's account moves to the level of
personal details of the operation.
Following known practices, the boy
was offered liquor for pain. At that
solemn moment he avoided what
many religious people then branded
evil. Likewise, he opposed orders
that he be bound. Preserving
physical liberty, he insisted that he
could best endure pain in the arms
of his trusted father. Sensitive to
his mother's feelings, the boy re-
quested that she leave the room.
Lucy vividly remembered that
moment: "Then looking up into
my face, his eyes swimming in
tears, he continued, 'Now mother,
promise me that you will not stay,
will you? The Lord will help me,
and I shall get through with it." 17
The necessarily brutal incision and
forcible bone removal brought
screams of pain, but the first time
his mother entered the room, young
Joseph recovered enough compo-
sure to direct her to leave: "I will
try to tough it out, if you will go
Courage is first cousin to respon-
sibility and is superbly shown by
Joseph Smith as the child verged
upon preadolescent accountabil-
ity. 49 What appears clearly is total
trust in his parents, acute empathy
with loved ones, and the power of
a personality that knew how to
submit to reality. In this single
pre-vision episode, one can see
qualities that made Joseph's first
In the light of the known char-
acter of young Joseph Smith, the
family's complete trust of him is a
striking fact. William Smith re-
peatedly told of the angel's coming,
with emphasis on the acceptance
of that story by his household:
"[T]here was not a single member
of the family of sufficient age to
know right from wrong but what
had implicit confidence in the
statements made by my brother
Joseph concerning his vision, and
the knowledge he thereby obtained
concerning the plates."'"
No serious question can be
raised concerning the sincerity of
the Smiths, for they sacrificed
reputation and safety by upholding
Joseph's testimony. Consequently,
their impressions of young Joseph
are a major historical tool. They
knew the young Prophet intimately;
they saw his expressions while re-
lating his visions, and they judged
his sincerity. They are a critical
means of standing close to Joseph's
visions and judging their validity.
It is hard to dismiss the common-
sense judgments of the practical
brother of the Prophet: "All be-
lieved it was true: father, mother,
brothers, and sisters. You can tell
what a child is. Parents know
whether their children are truthful
or not." 51
In his last known interview
William Smith drove that point
home, in answer to the question of
whether the Smiths did not occa-
sionally doubt Joseph's testimony:
"No. We all had the most implicit
confidence in what he said. He
was a truthful boy. Father and
mother believed him. Why should
not the children? I suppose if he
had told crooked stories about
other things, we might have
doubted his word about the plates,
but Joseph was a truthful boy.
That father and mother believed
his report and suffered persecution
for that belief shows that he was
truthful. No sir, we never doubted
his word for one minute." 52 O
'Joseph Smith 2:49. Modifications in quotations
in this article are confined to spelling, capitalization,
2 Lucy Mack Smith, Biographical Sketches of loseph
Smith (Liverpool, 1853), p. 82.
3 Manuscript History of the Church, Bk. A-1, pp.
121-22, November 9, 1835.
■•Patriarchal Blessing Book 1, December 9, 1834.
'Lucy Mack Smith, p. 73.
'William Smith, William Smith on Mormonism
(Lamoni, Iowa, 1883). The latter quotation above on
William's lack of religion is at page 10.
'William Smith, Notes Written on Chamber's
Miscellany. For convenience, the highly accurate
Church Historian's typescript page numbers will be
cited. For details on this manuscript, see Richard L.
Anderson, "Joseph Smith's New York Reputation
Reappraised," Brigham Young University Studies,
Vol. 10 (Spring 1970), pp. 312-13. The earlier
quotation above on William's lack of religion is at page
'lames Murdock, "Origin of the Mormons," New
Haven, Connecticut, |une 19, 1841, in Peoria Register
and North-Western Gazetteer, September 3, 1841,
hereafter cited as Murdock Interview. No copies
of the original Hartford Observer article are known.
Murdock, who interviewed William Smith, was a
major American church historian.
l0 "The Old Soldier's Testimony," speech at Deloit,
Iowa, )une 8, 1884, Saints' Herald, Vol. 31 (1884),
pp. 643-44; hereafter cited as Deloit Speech.
"J. W. Peterson, "William B. Smith's Last State-
ment," Zion's Ensign, Vol. 5 (1894), No. 3, p. 6,
hereafter cited as Peterson Interview.
12 William Smith on Mormonism, p. 15.
n lbid., p. 9. William's apparent personal lack of
knowledge prior to 1823 is treated in Richard Lloyd
Anderson, "Circumstantial Confirmation of the First
Vision Through Reminiscences," Brigham Young Uni-
versity Studies, Vol. 9 (Spring 1969), pp. 398-401.
'"Lucy Mack Smith, p. 82.
'^William Smith on Mormonism, p. 9.
" William Smith on Mormonism, pp. 9-10.
l8 "Wentworth Letter," Times and Seasons, Vol. 3
(1842), p. 706.
"See Anderson, "Circumstantial Confirmation," p.
"Manuscript History, 1832, extracted from Kirtland
Letter Book, cit. Dean C. lessee, "The Early Accounts of
loseph Smith's First Vision," Brigham Young University
Studies, Vol. 9 (Spring 1969), p. 279.
2l William Smith, Notes, p. 17.
"Lucy Mack Smith, p. 84.
"loseph Smith lournal, kept by Willard Richards
lanuary 9, 1843, cit. (oseph Smith, History of the
Church of jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake
City, 1919), Vol. 5, p. 247.
2i lbid., pp. 126-27.
25 William Smith on Mormonism, p. 10.
"Conference address, October 8, 1845, Times and
Seasons, Vol. 6 (1845), p. 1014.
27 Lucy Mack Smith, p. 89.
"Ibid., p. 63.
"Ibid., p. 185.
30 See Richard Lloyd Anderson, "The Smiths Who
Handled the Plates," Era, Vol. 72 (August 1969), pp. 28ff.
3l Lucy Mack Smith, p. 73.
u William Smith on Mormonism, p. 5.
"William Smith, Notes, p. 17.
^William Smith on Mormonism, pp. 12-13.
40 Peterson Interview.
"Lucy Mack Smith, pp. 40-41, 56, 58.
"Ibid., p. 60.
44 Emily A. Smith, The Life and Letters of Nathan
Smith, M. B., M.D. (New Haven, 1914), pp. 88-90. Dr.
Smith writes from New Hampshire up to September
1813 and then from Connecticut from December 1813.
45 Nathan Smith, Medical and Surgical Memoirs
(Baltimore, 1831), pp. 75-76.
46 Manuscript History of the Church, opening
narrative. Note A, location and composition described in
lessee, "Early Accounts" (n. 20 supra), pp. 291, 294.
Acknowledgment is made to President loseph Fielding
Smith for permission to publish Note A.
"Lucy Mack Smith, pp. 64-65.
4, C. N. Ottosen, "Baptism— Why Age Eight?"
fra, Vol. 73 (August 1970), pp. 4ff.
50 William Smith, Notes, p. 8.
51 Deloit Speech. "Peterson Interview.
Era, October 1970 89
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Thanks for the fine interview with Dr.
Truman Madsen [Era of Youth, July].
Being a philosophy student at a Catholic
seminary has given me some insight' to
various truths. Dr. Madsen not only
possesses consciousness of the intricate
truths of the intellectual, but the ability
to sift these truths and interweave them
logically in light of the restored gospel of
Jesus Christ. Since I Joined the Church
five years ago, it is through many such
fine people who inspire me that I am
aware that the glory of God is intelli-
gence, and it is through study and prayer
that we know we not only have truth,
but the truth.
Your June Era was particularly good. I
enjoyed immensely the conference talks
and other articles. Sister Fellows' story
"Reflection" was one of the best I've read
in a long time. The June issue was par-
ticularly interesting by the inclusion of
the statistical report. Please print re-
ports such as this and the one in the
November 1966 Era of Church popula-
tion distribution, mentioning the Church
population by states and country.
William Tincher, Jr.
Glory of Hebrew
With respect to the work discussed in
"The Glory of Hebrew" [July], I must
disagree with some of the conclusions.
While kabod may anciently have meant
body, it certainly cannot have that mean-
ing in biblical passages containing the
word. The Arabic cognate root kbd has
essentially the same meaning as that of
the Hebrew— i.e., heaviness or importance.
This meaning therefore antedates the
separation of Northwest Semitic (which
includes Hebrew) from Southwest Semi-
tic (which includes Arabic).
Moreover, I find in Arnolt's Assyrian
Dictionary that the Akkadian cognate
root kbt likewise refers to heaviness and
body. The root kbd may have had the
meaning of "physical body" in proto-
Semitic, but, because the three main divi-
sions of the Semitic languages do not
have this meaning, it is evident that, in
biblical times, when the separation be-
tween the divisions had already taken
place, it could not have had that meaning.
John A. Tvedtnes
Salt Lake City, Utah
I have just read Dr. Lindsay Curtis's arti-
cle on "The Seven Danger Signals of a
Sick Marriage" [August]. I thought it
was very good, but I wonder if it would
be possible in an issue to write about
physical violence in marriage. I never
thought that this would be a problem in
my marriage because it is so far removed
from anything I had ever known. But I
have a husband who is active in the
Church and who has a difficult time con-
trolling his violent temper. Apparently
anything can set him off into a tantrum—
and physical violence to persons near
him. I realize this shouldn't be in a
marriage. Our temple covenants are im-
portant to us. Help is needed.
The Church procedure for obtaining help
is to see your bishop.
By Webb Dycus
How far a shadow reaches
No one can ever say;
But standing in the morning,
Beside a pasture fence,
I saw poplar's shadow
Lean down the growing day
In towering proportion —
And knew its eloquence.
You wore an easy laughter
When you were here with me,
And walked beside me proudly,
As you have always done.
I'm learning now to miss you
With less intensity.
You cannot measure shadoivs —
They vary with the sun.
Era, October 1970 91
A CHILD GOES FORTH
by Barbara J. Taylor
A must for parents of young children
To the preschool child, the world is a great
adventure in which, when properly guided,
marvelous discoveries are made every day.
A Child Goes Forth will help you to make your
child's early experience a meaningful part of his life
Written by Barbara J. Taylor, coordinator for the
BYU Child Development Laboratory, the book
is designed as a step-by-step educational
activity guide. Parents of preschool children will
find it to be an invaluable reference and
source book in directing a child's physical,
mental, and emotional development. Order your
copy of this informative volume today.
Brigham Young University Press
3righam Young University Press
Box E, UPB
Please send me copies of
A Child Goes Forth. Enclosed is $4.60 plus
25c for shipping and handling for each book
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The First Word In Mews
The Soviet-West German Treaty
TheseTimes I ByDr - G - Homer Durham
I Commissioner and Executive Officer, Utah System of Higher Education
• News reports August 7, 1970,
indicated agreement on the text of
a West German-Soviet treaty. Dur-
ing the same week a 90-day cease-
fire began to be observed between
Israel and Egypt. Secretary of De-
fense Melvin Laird admitted to
U.S. air offensives in Cambodia.
Meanwhile, strategic arms limita-
tions talks between the United
States and the Soviet Union ap-
peared to be progressing.
The treaty between the Soviet
Union and West Germany, among
all these related events, may be
the most important. It may be part
of the price the U.S. had to pay
for the cease-fire. It may relate to
silent Russian acknowledgment of
an American sphere in Southeast
It directly, of course, relates
to possible new courses and rela-
tionships in Europe. Those pat-
terns will have worldwide over-
The text of the treaty was not
available as this was written. Be-
yond the text, when it does appear,
may well exist secret agreements
or understandings between the two
parties. But the following observa-
tions seem warranted:
1. Settlement of Europe's post-
World War II boundaries appears
to follow the agreements of the
past 25 years.
2. West Germany evidently made
the treaty with the knowledge, and
without the opposition, of the
United States, France, and Britain.
3. Increased economic east-west
traffic, especially between Russia
and Germany, may tend to link
East and West Germany. What hap-
pens to telephone service in Ber-
lin, the city divided for a quarter
century, for example, may symbol-
ize something. U.S. discourage-
ment of a Ford factory in Russia
may have been related to Ameri-
can political goals, worldwide,
which also relate to West German
industrial entry into the vast but
controlled Soviet markets.
4. German-Russian accords have
generally been short-lived, but dy-
namic in their effects. The big
question, after the treaty goes into
effect, will be, "What next?"
5. "What next" could include
West German rearmament as a nu-
clear power, aided and abetted by
the western allies. Bismarck's
drang < nach osten, and Willy
Brandt's "ostpolitik" of 1970, with
or without German rearmament,
will affect the balance of power in
Europe and in the world.
6. Russia evidently believes that
West Germany is no longer an
"American puppet." Russia may
be gambling on loosening the
Common Market and thereby
weakening the small semblance of
European political unity that has
developed, under American en-
couragement, since 1945.
Era, October 1970 93
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7. Russia, with its eyes on the
growing industrial might of its Ger-
man neighbor, may have lost a
strategic position of leadership in
the Arab world, so far as Egypt is
concerned. While Gromyko and
Walter Scheel, the German foreign
minister, were occupied in the dis-
cussions leading to August 7, U.S.
Secretary of State William Rogers
was busy in the Middle East. Mr.
Rogers and the Americans may not
have been successful in "detach-
ing" Nasser from the Soviets, but
anti-Soviet sentiments in Cairo,
plus some new American blandish-
ments to Egypt (not yet disclosed),
may have helped produce the
cease-fire. With the cease-fire
came some redivision in the Arab
world. With this comes new de-
pendence, on the part of Egypt, on
American willingness and ability to
8. In a curious way, the United
States may have become, in the
summer of 1970, the protector of
both Israel and Egypt. Considering
Russian ambitions in that part of
the world, this is not a bad situa-
tion. It is difficult. But perhaps it
is easier for a Republican adminis-
tration to overcome or ride with
anti-Nasser sentiment, than a
Democratic administration. Since
U.S. -Egyptian relations deterior-
ated under President Dwight Eisen-
hower and John Foster Dulles (and
Russian influence increased), po-
etic "justice" under President
Richard Nixon may be tolerated by
those Americans who would rather
see Egypt neutral and friendly.
What an achievement Mr. Nixon
would have if tourists could visit
both Cairo and the Holy Land with-
9. Making it possible for a tour-
ist to visit the pyramids and the
Mount of Olives in the same day
may not be as difficult as reopen-
ing the Suez Canal. The Soviet-
West German treaty, however, will
also affect that situation. The
United States may have indicated
some willingness to assist in that
objective in suggesting a cease-fire
to Nasser. But if the United States
is willing to help open the canal
and admit Russia to the Indian
Ocean, I believe we must expect a
deepening involvement and Amer-
ican effort in the Arabian penin-
10. If the West German econ-
omy can hypnotize and preoccupy
the Soviet Union, even for a few
months, the treaty these two pow-
ers signed in August 1970 may be
the most clever piece of diplomacy
since Bismarck. In the light of
Romantic history, such diplomacy
could have originated in London.
But in these times, it could also
represent political maturation in
Washington, D. C.
What of the especial interests of
readers of this magazine?
Well, if things can settle down
in Southeast Asia without Russian
and Chinese overtness, and if
American influence slowly neutral-
izes the Russian thrust into the
Arab world, there could, in the
next quarter century, develop
stakes and missions in the Indian
Ocean basin and its inlets, in
India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Iraq, Iran.
The Arabian peninsula and East
Africa may come later. But who
The Russo-German nonaggres-
sion pact of 1939 lasted only a few
weeks. It then exploded in the Ger-
man blitzkrieg that carried Hitler's
armies to Stalingrad.
In 1970 it is difficult to foresee
such explosive consequences of a
Russo-German accord. Rather,
more subtle results can be antici-
pated. But there will be results. As
the world teeters between hope
and disaster, Russia will make new
moves. They will be worldwide in
their scope. So will be the new
moves of the USA. o
End of an Era
Any child can tell you
what's wrong with today's
parents. They think they know
more than their children.
— Farmer's Almanac
The compilation of an
individual family record is a duty
of such sacred importance
that it cannot be wholly
entrusted to others to do for us.
The responsibility for
compiling a record for our
own family rests with each one
of us in our individual
— Elder Theodore M. Burton
A psychiatrist saw another
psychiatrist racing down the
street with a couch on
his head. "Why the couch?" he
called after his colleague,
and the hurrying one replied
breathlessly: "House call!"
The morns are meeker than
The nuts are getting brown;
The berry's cheek is plumper,
The rose is out of town.
— Emily Dickinson, "Autumn"
Signs of the Times . . .
On a milk truck: "Our cows
are not contented. They're
anxious to do better!"
In a reducing salon : "A word
to the wide is sufficient."
At a hearing aid store: "Let us
give you some sound advice."
In a travel agency: "For the
family that strays together."
In a clock shop : "There's no
present like the time."
Some minds are like concrete —
all mixed up and permanently set.
The professor stepped up on
the platform and, by way of
breaking the ice, remarked:
"I've just been asked to
come up here and say something
funny.'" A student heckler
in the back of the hall
called out, "You'll tell us when
you say it, won't you?"
"I'll tell you," the professor
responded. "The others
It's all right to hold a
conversation, but you should
let go of it now and then.
— Richard Armour
Worry affects the circulation,
the heart, the glands, the
whole nervous system.
I have never known a man who
died from overwork, but
many who died from doubt.
— Dr. Charles Mayo
Because of previous
commitments, one family was
finding it increasingly
difficult to hold family
home evening. After
numerous postponements, the
father awakened his
children at 5:00 a.m.
"Everybody up ! It's family
morning 1" It was amazing
how swiftly the children
were able to arrange
their schedules to
accommodate family home
At the dinner table, six-year-old
Jared asked his dad where he
was going that evening. "I'm
going to the stake center to
watch the television broadcast
of general priesthood meeting,"
he was told. "Can I go with
you?" "In a few years,
when you're old enough to hold
the priesthood," dad replied.
Melanie, the three-year-old
daughter, then asked if she could
hold the priesthood. Told that
girls don't hold the priesthood,
she looked dejected until
Jared explained, "Never mind,
Melanie — when you get big
you can hold the Relief Society."
— Don Thayne, Taylorsville, Utah
"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anec-
dotes and experiences that relate to the Latter-day
Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words.
Era, October 1970 95
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Denver Medical Club's S500 profit.
Millions of people have bought
these confections to support thou-
sands of different projects—large and
small— all year long! It's easy: We
send the candy you need . . . enough
to raise $50 or S5000 or more . . . and
we even pay the shipping costs. You
pay nothing until 60 days after the
shipment so there is no risk.
RUSH coupon for FREE booklet!
MAIL TO: KATHRYN BEICH CANDIES
DEPT. 36P7, Bloomington, III. 61701
□ Our group is interested. Send the money-making details.
(Continental U.S.A. Only)
guide and catalog
shows you how to
plan and operate
money - making
How to send funds
SAFELY AND AT NO COST
to missionaries now in the field
It has always been the policy of First Security Bank to provide free service to
families sending funds to missionaries in the field.
Whether your missionary is in the United States or in a foreign country, we will be
pleased at any First Security Bank, without charge, to provide you with a cashier's
check or bank draft, which is the best way of sending funds to him or her.
First Security Bank
Member First Security Corporation System of Banks
RESOURCES OVER ONE BILLION DOLLARS
First Security Bank of Utah, National Association.
First Security Bank of Idaho, National Association.
First Security State Bank.
First Security Bank of Rock Springs, Wyoming.
Members Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation